Bereg, a county of N. E. Hungary, bounded N. E. by the Carpathians and S. W. by the Theiss; area, 1,439 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 139,223, over half of whom are Ruthenians, 5,000 Jews, 2,800 Germans, 600 Slovaks, and the rest Magyars. The N. part is mountainous and rather barren, but the county is fertile in fruits, especially in the south, which produces wine little inferior to Tokay. The forests abound with game and cattle, and the numerous streams, all tributaries of the Theiss, with fish and water fowl. Gold is no longer found, but there is abundance of iron ore, porcelain clay, and alum, the last of which is extensively refined. The principal towns are Munkacs, and Beregszasz, the capital (pop. in 1870, 6,272).
Berezov. I. Also called Berezovsk, a village of Russia, in the government of Perm, on the E. dope of the Ural mountains, about 10 m. N. E. of Yekaterinburg, noted for its gold mine, which employs 6,000 men; pop. in 1867, 1,567. II. A small town of Siberia, in the government of Tobolsk, on the left bank of the Sosra, a branch of the Obi, in lat. 64° 3' N., lon. 65° E.; pop. about 1,500. It is the sole station for traffic in furs in a vast extent of territory, and the annual fair held here is well attended. Berezov is noted in Russian history as a place of exile.
Berg, an ancient duchy of Germany, on the lower Rhine. In 1108 Adolph and Ebrard, the two counts of Teisterband, were created by the emperor Henry V. counts of Berg and Altena. One of their descendants divided his territory between his two sons, and made one count of Berg and the other of Altena. It was subsequently connected with Limburg, and still later with Cleves and Julich. In 1666, after long disputes, Cleves was given to Brandenburg, and Julich-Berg to the Palatinate. After many new changes Julich was annexed to France by the wars of the revolution, and Berg to Prussia. In 1806 Berg too was ceded to France. In 1808 it was enlarged and erected into a grand duchy by Napoleon, and given first to Murat and afterward to the eldest son of Louis Napoleon, king of Holland. It was incorporated in 1815 with Prussia under the treaty of Vienna, and is now included in the three districts of Arnsberg, Diisseldorf, and Cologne.
Bergama, a town of Asiatic Turkey, 50 m. N. of Smyrna, built on the site of ancient Pergamus; pop. about 12,000. The remains of several temples, of a prytaneum, gymnasium, amphitheatre, and other public buildings, bear witness to the magnificence of the ancient city.
Bergen, a N. E. county of New Jersey, bordering on New York and bounded E. by the Hudson river; area, 350 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 30,122. On the W. bank of the Hudson, within the limits of this comity, are the Palisades, a range of trap rock which rises perpendicularly from the river to a height of 500 ft. The county is intersected by Ramapo, Hackensack, and Saddle rivers, has an uneven and in the western part mountainous surface, and a productive soil. It contains limestone and magnetic iron ore. It is intersected by the Erie railway, the Hackensack branch, and the Northern railway of New Jersey. The chief productions in 1870 were 8,788 bushels of wheat, 81,719 of rye, 146,140 of Indian corn, 45,533 of oats, 24,009 of buckwheat, 209,162 of pota-toes, 18,208 tons of hay, and 823,919 lbs. of butter. There were 8,535 horses, 4,076 milch cows, 1,861 other cattle, 473 sheep, and 2,953 swine. Value of produce of market gardens, $240,462. Capital, Hackensack.