I. The Name Of The Citadel Of Troy

The Name Of The Citadel Of Troy, frequently used by poets for that city itself.

II. An Ancient City Of Asia Minor

An Ancient City Of Asia Minor, in the Mysian district of Teuthrania, and capital of a kingdom of the same name. It was in the delightful valley of the Cai'cus, at the foot of two hills near the N. bank of that river, and at its confluence with the Oe-tius and Selinus, the latter of which flowed through the city. Pergamus was founded by a colony of Arcadians, or, according to other traditions, by Epidaurians under AEsculapius, who was the patron of the place. Its name is derived by some from that of Pergamus, the son of Pyrrhus and Andromache, who is said to have slain a Teuthranian king in single combat and taken possession of his territory. After belonging successively to the Persians, the empire of Alexander the Great, and the Thra-cian kingdom of Lysimachus, it fell into the hands of Seleucus I. of Syria. On his death (280 B. C.) it became independent under Phile-taerus, and extended its power and territory. Attalus I. (241-197) assumed the royal title, and through the friendly relations which he and his successor Eumenes II. (197-159) entertained with Rome, the territory was increased by that of the rest of Mysia, Lydia, Phrygia, and other neighboring provinces.

Pergamus now became one of the most splendid cities of Asia, rivalling by its library, a renowned school of literature, and the invention of parchment, the principal glories of the capital of the Ptolemies. Attalus III. (138-133) ruled like a madman, and finally bequeathed his whole kingdom to the Romans, who erected it into the province of Asia, with Perga-mus as the capital. It soon decayed, however, being deprived of its treasures of literature by Antony, who attached them to the library of Alexandria, and subsequently also of its dignity as capital of the province under the Byzantine rule. Here was one of the seven churches founded by St. Paul, and the city became one of the principal Asian seats of Christianity in its earliest period. It was finally destroyed during the Turkish wars. - Its site is now occupied by a flourishing town, called Bergama, noted for its manufactories of morocco leather. Among the extensive ruins are the foundations of the palace of Lysimachus and of a temple of the Corinthian order, a large Roman basilica, a double tunnel for the Selinus, remains of an amphitheatre built over the stream with arrangements to flood the arena for nautical sports, the front of a Byzantine palace, and several inscriptions.

The recent researches of Ernst Curtius, Gelzer, and others have produced many valuable results. - See Beitrage zur Geschichte und Topographie Kleinasiens (Ephe-sos, Pergamon, Smyrna, Sanies), edited by Ernst Curtius (academy of sciences, Berlin, 1872).

Ruins of Pergatnus.

Ruins of Pergatnus.