Phrygia, in ancient geography, a division of Asia Minor, whose boundaries varied materially at different periods. It was situated west of the river Halys, and surrounded by Bithynia, Paphlagonia, Cappadocia, Lycaonia, Pisidia, Lycia, Caria, Lydia, and Mysia. It was also called Greater Phrygia to distinguish it from a territory S. of the Propontis in later times included in Mysia, which was known as Lesser Phrygia. After the invasion of the Gauls in the 3d century B. C, its northeastern portion formed the main part of Gallo-Grse-cia or Galatia. (See Galatia.) In the early Roman period there was no special province of Phrygia, but the territory at different times was variously apportioned to other provinces. The bulk of it was included in the kingdom of Pergamus, and subsequently in the province of Asia. In the 4th century A. D. the Romans added the southern portion of Phrygia, surnamed Parorius, to the province of Pisidia, another district to Caria, and formed of the remaining portions two provinces, calling the eastern Phrygia Salutaris and the western Phrygia Pacatiana. Most of the larger cities were in the southwest; the most important were CelsenaB, at the source of the Mseander; Apamea Cibotus, founded by Antiochus Soter; Colossse, where a Christian church was established; Laodicea, the seat of another jOhris-tian church; Hierapolis, renowned for its mineral springs; and nearer the centre of the province Docimeum, the marble of which was in high repute.
The principal rivers were the Mseander in the west and the Sangarius on the N". boundary. The country is a high table land, the soil in the north and west being fertile, but covered with salt marshes and lakes in the south. It was celebrated for its wool, agricultural produce, cheese, and salt provisions. - The Phrygians were regarded as one of the most ancient nations of Asia Minor; according to some, including Herodotus, they were Thracians; according to others, Armenians. The few linguistic remains point to an Iranian origin, though bearing some resemblance to Greek. Among them is the epitaph of a king Midas, possibly a descendant of the legendary Phrygian king Midas who turned everything he touched into gold. Though little of their history is known, the Phrygians were to all appearance a nation of considerable power and culture. The Phrygian religion was noted for the frenzied dances and self-mutilations of the priests and devotees. In early times they seem to have been governed by kings of their own. They were conquered by Croesus, king of Lydia, and along with the rest of his dominions became a part of the Persian empire.
After the conquest and death of Alexander it belonged to the empire of the Seleucidae. A rich portion of it, S. of the Sangarius, was annexed by Bithynia, but subsequently given by the Romans to Pergamus under the name of Phrygia Epictetus. The main parts of Phrygia are now embraced in the Turkish vilayet of Khodavendighiar.