Munkacs, a town of. -N. E. Hungary, in the county of Bereg, on the Latorcza, 67 m. E. S. E. of Kaschau; pop. in 1870, 8,602. E. of it, on a high rock, is the fortress of the same name, remarkable for numerous sieges, and formerly used by the Austrians as a state prison. Among the prominent prisoners confined there was Alexander Ypsilanti. During the war of 1848-'9 the town and fortress were in the hands of the Hungarians. It has large iron and saltpetre works.


See Eel, vol. vi., p. 447.

Muriatic Acid

See Hydbochlorio Acid.

Murray Hoffman

Murray Hoffman, an American jurist, born in New York, Sept. 29, 1791. He graduated at Columbia college in 1809, studied law, and practised for a number of years. In March, 1839, he became assistant vice chancellor, which office he held for four years. He was appointed judge of the superior court in New York in November, 1853, and held that office till the end of 1861. Judge Hoffman has published "Office and Duties of Masters in Chancery " (1824); " Treatise on the Practice of the Court of Chancery" (3 vols., 1840-'43); " Treatise on the Corporation of New York as Owners of Property, and Compilation of the Laws relating to the City of New York;" and "Vice Chancery Reports" (1839-'40). As an active layman in the Episcopal church, he has published "Treatise on the Law of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States" (1850); "Ecclesiastical Law in the State of New York" (1868); and "The Ritual Law of the Church, with Notes on the Offices, Articles, etc." (1872).

Murray, Or Moray, Sir Robert

Murray, Or Moray, Sir Robert, one of the founders of the royal society of London, born in Scotland about the beginning of the 17th century, died in June, 1673. In his youth he entered the French service, and rose to the rank of colonel. Subsequently returning to Scotland, he became an ardent supporter of Charles I., and afterward of Charles II., the latter of whom in 1651, during his brief reign in Scotland, appointed him justice clerk and lord of session. During the protectorate his offices were taken from him, but he received them again at the restoration. He was a prominent member of a small club established in London by Boyle, Lord Brounker, and others, for the discussion of questions in natural science, or, as it was then termed, "the new philosophy," and which by Sir Robert Murray's efforts obtained in 1662 a royal charter as a regular scientific body.


Murviedro (anc. Saguntum), a town of Spain, in the province and 16 m. N. by E. of the city of Valencia; pop. about 7,500. It is on the right bank of the Palancia, and was once a seaport, but the recession of the sea has left it 4 m. inland. It is a straggling town at the foot of a hill, which is crowned by a citadel, and the streets are narrow and crooked. The principal industrial establishments are flour and oil mills and four distilleries. The Goths, the Moors, and the Spaniards have freely used the rich marbles of Saguntum as materials for later structures. In 1867 a wall was built around the ruins of the theatre. The fortress was the key of Valencia, and the French under Suchet captured it in 1811, after a battle on the plain, Oct. 25, where with about 20,000 men they defeated the Spanish Gen. Blake, who attacked them with 25,000. (See Saguntum).