Lemberg, Or Leopol (Pol. Lwow), the capital of Austrian Galicia, on the Peltew, a small tributary of the Bug, 185 m. E. of Cracow; pop. in 1870, 87,105, nearly one third of whom were Jews. The city proper is small, but the suburbs are extensive and contain many handsome houses; and the lofty towers of the cathedral and numerous other churches, as well as the massiveness of other public edifices, give to the city an imposing appearance. The university of Lemberg, founded in 1784, had in 1872 46 professors and 1,031 students (554 Poles, 430 Ruthenians, 47 Germans). The university library in 1873 had 55,000 volumes. The city possesses also an institute, established by Ossolinski, rich in Slavic antiquities and in ancient Polish literature. Among the most noteworthy buildings are the city hall, the Count Skarbek theatre, the diet hall, the palace of the Catholic archbishop, and several convents, hospitals, and railroad depots. It is the seat of the governor of Galicia, of Roman Catholic, United Greek, and United Armenian archbishops, and of a Protestant superintendent general. Some manufactures, mainly of cloth and linen, are carried on; but it is chiefly as a commercial town, with large annual fairs, and as one of the principal corn markets of Austria, that Lemberg is important.
Railway lines connect it with Cracow, Pesth, Czer-nowitz, and other cities. Lemberg was founded in the 13th century, taken by Casimir I. of Poland in 1340, besieged in 1648 by the revolted Cossacks under Chmielnicki, who withdrew on receiving a large ransom, and captured by the Turks in 1672, when it ceased to be of importance as a fortress. After having been more than four centuries in the possession of Poland, it came to Austria at the first partition of that country in 1772. It was bombarded by the Austrians during the outbreak of Nov. 2, 1848.