Yokohama (Jap. Cross Strand), a seaport city on the E. side of the main island of Japan, on the W. shore of the bay of Yedo, 15 m. S. by W. of Tokio (Yedo); lat. 35° 26' N., Ion. 139° 39' E.; pop. about 60,000, including 1,500 of the 2,500 Americans and Europeans resident in Japan, and 1,200 Chinese. It is the capital of the Kanagawa hen or prefecture. The city lies mostly on flat land backed by a line of bluffs built upon with many tasteful residences. The streets both in the foreign and native quarters are well paved, drained, lighted with gas, and lined with richly stocked shops, hongs, tea-firing godowns, and silk warehouses. Yokohama is the chief port of foreign commerce in Japan, six lines of steamers (Japanese, American, and European) making it their terminus or port of call. It is the great mart for the silk, tea, grain, and native produce and manufactures. It contains three foreign and four native Christian churches, four foreign and two native daily newspapers, five banks, four hospitals, large hotels, public gardens, and gas works, and is supplied with water brought in aqueducts.
A railway 18 m. long connects it with Tokio. Telegraph lines to Yezo, Tokio, Kioto, Nagasaki, and thence to Shanghai, China, and Vladivostok in Siberia, unite it to Europe and America. The climate is very salubrious, and the surrounding scenery beautiful, Mt. Fuji and the bay, here 12 m. wide, with its indentations and evergreen bluffs, being striking features. The harbor is deep and capacious. The imports in 1874 amounted to $16,716,298, out of a total for the whole country of $24,223,629; exports, $12,578,573, out of a total of $20,001,637. Among the exports was tea to the United States to the amount of 17,016,316 lbs., valued at $5,107,800. - Until 1854, when Perry signed the American treaty with the shogun's envoys at this place, Yokohama was a small fishing village. By the first treaty of commerce, concluded by the American envoy Townsend Harris, July 29, 1858, it was opened to foreign trade and residence, and its growth has been rapid. The historic and natural interest of the vicinity make it the resort of thousands of tourists. Kanazawa, once a noted seat of learning, is 8 m.
S. W.; and 2 m. further is Kamakura, the military capital of Japan from 1184 to 1574. The colossal copper image of Dai Butsu (Great Buddha), 50 ft. high, a work of high art, and the fine temple on Tsuruga Oka, are the chief relics of its mediaeval glory. Its vicinity was a battle ground for centuries, it being the stronghold of the Minamoto,- Hojo, and Ashikaga lines of shoguns in succession.