Caroline Matilda, queen of Denmark, daughter of Frederick Lewis, prince of Wales, and sister of George III. of England, born July 22, 1751, died at Celle, May 10, 1775. She married in 1766 Christian VII., king of Denmark, and in 1768 became mother of Frederick VI. She endeared herself to all around her, excepting the queen dowager, Sophia Magdalen, and Juliana Maria, the king's stepmother, who were jealous of her influence, and treated her with marked hostility. Their dislike to the young queen assumed a still more formidable characte" when Struensee, the physician and special favorite of the queen, rose to supreme power in Denmark, and in concert with his royal mistress acted with the liberal party, while the queen dowager and Juliana Maria were partisans of the old Danish aristocracy. At the same time grave imputations were cast by them upon the queen's honor. In 1771 she was delivered of a daughter; and her enemies, calling attention to the long illness and feebleness of the king, attributed the child to the illicit connection with Struensee. The ruin of the queen and her favorite was resolved upon by the queen dowager and her party, and on the night of Jan. 16, 1772, during a ball at the court, the agents of the queen dowager's party so wrought upon the fears of the weak Christian as to induce him to sign orders for the arrest of the queen, her favorite, and several of their partisans, and to appoint their most violent enemies to the principal olfices of state.

Struensee and the queen were immediately taken into custody. The minister and his friend Brandt were sentenced to death, and Caroline with her little daughter (the future duchess of Augustenburg), barely escaping the same fate, were consigned to Kron-borg castle. But for Lord Keith, the British minister at Copenhagen, more stringent measures would have been taken against her; as it was, a separation from her husband King Christian (who by his semi-idiotic condition had long since ceased to possess any personal influence) was agreed upon, and Celle in Hanover assigned to her as a place of residence, where she died after a few years. A monument has been erected to her in Celle. Lenzen published a book on her last hours, containing the celebrated letter written by the queen to her brother George III., in which she asserts her innocence. See also Die Verschwdrung gegen die Konigin Karolina Mathilde middle Grafen Struensee und Brandt, nach hisher ungedruck-ten Origlnalacten (Leipsic, 1864).