Charles Babbage, an English mathematician, born at Teignmouth, Dec. 26, 1792, died in London, Oct. 20, 1871. He was a fellow student of Sir John llerschel at the university of Cambridge, and was Lucasian professor there from 1828 to 1839. He became celebrated as the inventor of the calculating machine. (See Calculating Machines.) He was one of the founders of the royal astronomical society and of the British association, and the originator of the statistical society, and wrote extensively for scientific and philosophical periodicals on mathematics, magnetic and electric phenomena, mechanical science, geology, and statistics. Among his works are: "Letter to Sir Humphry Davy on the Application of Machinery to Mathematical Tables" (1822); translations, with Herschel and Peacock, of Lacroix's works on the differential and integral calculus; "Comparative View of the different Institutions for the Assurance of Life" (1826); "A Table of the Logarithms of the Natural Numbers from 1 to 108,000" (1826); "Reflections on the Decline of Science in England" (1830); "Economy of Manufactures and Machinery" (1832), which passed through many English editions and foreign translations, and has been called by Blanqui a hymn in honor of machinery; "A Ninth Bridgewater Treatise" (1837), defending mathematical studies from the charge of a tendency to infidelity; "The Great Exposition" (1851); and "Passages from the Life of a Philosopher" (1864). His house in London was for many years a centre of intellectual society.