Ciudad Rodrigo, a town of Spain, in the province and 44 m. S. W. of Salamanca, situated on the right bank of the Agueda, 15 m. from the Portuguese boundary; pop. about 6,500. It occupies one of the most important positions on the frontiers of Spain, and is fortified by walls, a ditch, a castle, and other works, ranking as a fortress of the second class. It derives its name from its founder, Count Ko-drigo Gonzales Giron, who lived about the middle of the 12th century. It is indifferently built, but has a few interesting structures, including the cathedral, a cruciform edifice which has suffered somewhat from sieges, the chapel of Cerralbo, still beautiful despite its dilapidation, an Augustinian convent and church, and a handsome bridge of seven arches across the Agueda, connecting the city with its suburbs. In the market place are three Roman columns with inscriptions, brought from ancient Mala-briga, and borne by the city for its arms. It occupies a prominent place in the early annals of Spain, but its present historical importance depends mainly upon the events of the peninsular war. In 1810 it was invested by the French under Massena, was gallantly defended by the Spanish garrison, and after a siege of about 40 days was forced to capitulate.
On Jan. 8, 1812, Wellington suddenly crossed the Agueda, carried one of the advanced redoubts by assault, established his batteries, and on the 14th commenced a furious bombardment. On the 19th two breaches were declared practicable, and on that night the town was stormed in the face of a murderous lire. By this exploit the British captured 150 guns and a vast amount of stores, but lost 1,300 men. The French lost 300 killed and 1,500 prisoners. Wellington was created duke of Ciudad Rodri-go by Spain, marquis of Torres Vedras by Portugal, and raised from viscount to earl by his own government.