Claude Bernard, a French physiologist, horn at Saint Julien, department of the Rhone, July 12, 1813. He studied in Paris, and became in 1854 incumbent of the newly established chair of general physiology in the faculty of sciences, and member of the academy; in 1855 professor of experimental physiology at the college de France; and in 1868 professor of general physiology at the museum. He established his reputation by his Recherches sur les usages du pancreas, to which the academy awarded a prize in 1846, and which was published in 1856 in the academical annals. His other works include Lafonction glycogeniquedu foie (1849); Recherches experimentales sur le grand sympa-thique et sur l'influence que la section de ce nerf exerce sur la chaleur animale (1854); Le-$ons de physiologic experimentale appliquee d la medecine (2 vols., 1855-'6); Lecons sur les proprietes physiologiques et les alterations pa-thologiques des differents liquides de Vorga-nisme(2 vols., 1859); Lepons et experiences physiologiques sur la nutrition et le developpement (1860); and De la physiologie generale (1872). The last named work received a valuable prize from the academy.

His most important discoveries relate to the functions of the liver.