Claude Henri Saint-Simon, count de, a French socialist, born in Paris, Oct. 17, 1760, died there, May 19, 1825. In 1777 he entered the army, and in 1779 went to America, where he distinguished himself at the siege of Yorktown. On his home voyage he was captured by the English with the count de Grasse and detained at Jamaica till the peace of 1783. He then went to Mexico, vainly urging the construction of a Pacific-Atlantic canal, and in 1785 to Spain, where he was not more successful in his scheme for converting Madrid into a seaport. On the outbreak of the revolution he and M. de Redern bought real estate at very low rates. The latter, being the principal, gained by the speculation, while Saint-Simon, after his release from 11 months' imprisonment during the reign of terror, was said to have made only 150,000 francs. In 1801 he married Mlle, de Champgrand, from whom, in the vain hope of becoming the husband of the widowed Mme. de Staël, he was divorced in July, 1802. In 1807 he published his celebrated Introduction aux travaux scientifiques du dix-neuvième siècle, in which he expounded the basis of his theories for the reorganization of science and the reconstruction of society.

Regarding the great Encyclopédie as merely a dictionary, he published in 1810 his Prospectus d'une nouvelle Encyclopédie; but Napoleon, to whom he had appealed, took no notice of him, and he was reduced to the most abject poverty. His friend Diard, who had often aided him, died in 1810; subsequently his relatives secured him a small pension. In conjunction with Augustin Thierry, his most devoted disciple, he published De la réorganisation de la société européenne (1814), and Opinions sur les mesures à prendre contre la coalition de 1815 (1815). In L'Industrie, ou Discussions politiques, morales et philoso-phiques (4 vols., 1817-'18), Thierry, Saint-Au-bin, and others assisted him. In 1819 he was indicted for asserting in a pamphlet (Parabole) that the death of men of science, artists, and artisans was a greater national calamity than that of kings and bishops and other people of mere rank and wealth. He was acquitted in March, 1820, and continued thereafter to devote all his means to defray the cost of publishing his writings.

At length in March, 1823, he was driven to despair by the exhaustion of his resources, and shot himself; but the shot only destroyed one eye, and he survived to finish his Catéchisme industriel (1824) and his Nouveau Christianisme (1825), the crowning work of his life. - For his socialistic doctrines, which became known as St. Simonism, see Socialism. See also Saint-Simon, sa vie et ses travaux, by Hubbart (Paris, 1857). En-fantin published some of his posthumous writings, which are also included in Oeuvres choisies de Saint-Simon (3 vols., Brussels, 1859; new ed., Paris, 1861). Of the complete edition proposed by Rodrigues, only two volumes appeared in 1832; but the members of the council appointed by Enfantin as the literary executors of Saint-Simon prepared a complete and joint edition of both Saint-Simon and En-fantin's works (20 vols., 1865-'9).