Elbruz Elburz, Or Alburj, a lofty range of mountains extending over northern Persia, connected on the west with those of Armenia and with the great Caucasus chain, and eastward with the Paropamisan range. It averages from 6,000 to 8,000 ft. in height, the highest peak, Mt. Demavend, being about 18,000 ft. (See Demavend.) It enters N. Persia from the Caucasus, and runs for some distance parallel with the S. shore of the Caspian to Astrabad, whence it branches off in an easterly direction toward Afghanistan and Turkistan. By the Sahund mountains it also connects with the Zagros range on the Turkish border. The valleys of the Elburz, especially toward the S. declivities, are exceedingly fertile. In the slope of the mountains opposite Teheran is the tract of Shama-i-Iran or Shamirun (i. e., the light of Persia), extending over 20 m., and containing nearly 40 villages surrounded by gardens and famous as summer resorts. The most celebrated pass is that of Sardari, known to the ancients as the Caspian gates, situated about 55 m.
S. by E. of Mt. Demavend, and extending nearly 30 m. in a narrow road between high rocks, forming a barrier against foreign enemies. - One of the principal summits of the Caucasus range is also known as Mt. Elbruz, or Elburz, 18,514 ft. high. (See Caucasus.)