First King Of Sicily Roger II., son of the preceding, born in Mileto, Calabria, about 1095, died Feb. 26, 1154. He succeeded his father under the guardianship of his mother, Adelaide of Montferrat. On assuming the government, Roger reduced the barons to obedience, and brought Malta back to allegiance. In 1121 he took from his cousin William, duke of Apulia and Calabria, part of his possessions, and on his death in 1127 seized all his dominions in southern Italy. In 1130 he sustained his brother-in-law Anacletus as antipope, received from him the title of king of Sicily, and was crowned at Palermo the same year; and he established Anacletus in Rome, driving out Innocent II. In 1137 he was defeated by the German emperor Lothaire II., who had been called in by his revolted vassals; but he at once recovered his ground on the emperor's departure. Innocent II. falling into his power in 1139, Roger compelled him to remove his excommunication and to confirm his kingly title, in return recognizing his right to the papacy. He took Naples from Duke Sergius, and Capua and Aver-sa from Prince Robert. In consequence of insults from the Greek emperor Manuel Com-nenus in 1146, he ravaged Epirus and Dalma-tia, captured Corfu, and devastated Greece, bringing back an immense booty.

In 1147 he attacked the empire of the Zoraides in Africa, and extended his sway over a large part of the Barbary coast. He introduced the sugar cane and the manufacture of silk into Sicily.