Francesco Redi, an Italian naturalist, born in Arezzo, Feb. 18, 1626, died in Pisa, March 1, 1698. He was physician to successive grand dukes at Florence, and acquired a high reputation in his profession, and also as a naturalist, classical scholar, and poet. He belonged to the school of Galileo, and his writings are alike distinguished for depth of scientific inquiry and philosophic acumen. He first clearly enunciated the doctrine that all living organisms must have originally sprung from preexisting germs, and contended that in all cases of the apparent production of organized beings from dead matter, as in putrefactions and animal and vegetable infusions, the previous existence or subsequent introduction of such germs must be presumed. He openly attacked the doctrines of the abiogenists, or defenders of the theory of spontaneous generation, opposing their assertions by a series of simple and for the time almost conclusive experiments, which still serve modern naturalists as a basis in similar researches. (See Spontaneous Genera-tion.) His most important works are Osser-vazioni intorno alle vipere (4to, Florence, 1664; Latin translation, Amsterdam, 1678); Esperi-enze intorno alla generazione degl' insetti (1668; Latin, 1671), which had many editions; and Os-servazioni agli animali viventi che si trovano negli animali viventi (1684). The finest of his poems is Bacco in Toscana (1685), a eulogy of the wines of Tuscany. He also wrote lives of Dante and Petrarch. The latest edition of his complete works was published at Milan in 1809, in 9 vols. 8vo.