See Fermentation, vol. vii., p. 144.


Putty, a kind of cement used for filling cavities in cabinet and carpenter's work, for fastening window panes in sashes, and kindred purposes. Ordinary glazier's putty is made of whiting (finely levigated chalk) and boiled linseed oil, kneaded into a doughy mass and beaten with a mallet. The addition of a small quantity of tallow prevents its getting too hard. French putty is made by boiling 4 lbs. of brown umber in 7 lbs. of linseed oil for about two hours, adding 2 oz. of melted wax, 5 1/2 lbs. of whiting, and 11 lbs. of dry white lead, mixing well. This putty is very durable, and will adhere to unpainted wood.


Puvdus, in ancient geography, a range of mountains in northern Greece, a part of which, properly so called, separated the provinces of Thessaly and Epirus. The name is also used in modern geography. (See Geeece, vol. viii., p. 186, and Turkey).


Puy-De-Dome, a S. central department of France, in Auvergne, bordering on Allier, Loire, Haute-Loire, Cantal, Corrèze, and Creuse; area, 3,073 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 566,463. It is traversed by the Forez mountain, branches of the Cévennes, and the Auvergne group, among the highest summits of which are the Puy de Dôme, nearly 5,000 ft., and Mont Dor or Dore, more than 6,000 ft. There are many extinct volcanoes. The chief river is the Allier. A large part of the surface consists of the fertile valley of Limagne. Mineral springs, lead, antimony, coal, and timber abound. The soil, though stony, is productiver particularly in the north; the hillsides are covered with orchards and vineyards, and there are extensive chestnut plantations. It is divided into the arrondissements of Ambert, Clermont-Ferrand, Issoire, Riom, and Thiers. Capital, Clermont-Ferrand.


Pydna (now Kitro), an ancient town of southern Macedonia, near the W. shore of the Thermaic gulf. It was a Greek colony, but was repeatedly subjected by the Macedonian kings, and finally by Philip, who enlarged and fortified it. Here Aemilius Paulus vanquished Perseus, the last king of Macedon (168 B. C). Under the Romans it was also called Citrum or Citrus, from which its modern name is derived.


Pygmalion, a legendary king of Cyprus, whom the licentious conduct of his countrywomen so disgusted that he conceived a hatred against the whole sex. According to Ovid, he made an ivory female statue of such exceeding beauty that he fell desperately in love with it himself, and prayed to Venus to endow it with life. The goddess granted his request. Pygmalion then married the object of his affections, and by her had a son called Paphus, who founded the city of that name. (For another legendary Pygmalion, see Dido).


Pylos, the name of three ancient towns of the Peloponnesus, on or near its western shore, one of which was in Hollow Elis, another in Triphylia, and the third and most important in Messenia, on the promontory of Coryphasium. The earlier city on the promontory was forsaken by the inhabitants after the close of the second Messenian war, and the promontory remained deserted until the Peloponnesian war, when in 425 B. C. it was fortified by the Athenian general Demosthenes. It became memorable for the defeat of the Spartans not long after, but at the close of the war passed again into the hands of the Lacedaemonians.

The town of Navarino is near the site of the old city, which is considered by most critics as the Pylos of Nestor. K. O. Müller, how-ever, decides in favor of the Triphylian Pylos.