Haddock ,.I. A soft-rayed fish of the cod family, and genus morrhua (Cuv.). This well known species varies in length from 1 to 2 ft., and in weight from 2 to 6 lbs., though some have been taken weighing 17 lbs. The color is dark gray above and silvery gray below, with a jet-black lateral line, and an oblong dark blotch on each side, on a line with and just above the pectorals. The body is stout in the anterior half, tapering backward; the head is large, flattened between the eyes, and the snout prominent; the eyes large, with bluish iris; the upper jaw the longer, with several rows of sharp-pointed teeth, and a single row in the lower; a very minute barbule suspended from the chin. There are three dorsals, the first high and triangular, whence its name of M. oeglefinus (Linn.); the pectorals are triangular, and the ventrals are in front of them, under the throat; there are two anals, and the caudal is emarginated. The haddock is found everywhere on the American coast from New York to the arctic regions; they occur in immense shoals, often changing ground as their food becomes exhausted; they are found on our coast from spring to autumn, at the season when cod are scarce. It is an excellent fish when eaten fresh.
The spawning time is in early spring; its food consists of small fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and marine worms; from its voracity it is a ready biter, and is easily caught; the fishery is valuable to New England and the British provinces, and is pursued in the same manner as for cod, and in deep water. The haddock is equally abundant on the coast of northern Europe, and is very common in the English markets; it is found in the arctic seas, supplying food to the inhabitants of Greenland, and to the seals and other aquatic mammals of the northern regions. The name "young haddock" is sometimes given to the pollack, a gadoid fish of the genus mer-langus (Cuv.). II. The Norway haddock is the sebastes Norvegicus (Cuv.), an acanthopte-rous marine fish of the family sclerogenidoe or "mailed cheeks." It attains a length of from 1 to 2 ft.; the body and the upper parts of the head are covered with scales; the gill covers are spiny; the teeth are numerous, small, equal, in both jaws, and on the vomer and palate bones; the single dorsal is partly spinous, as are the anal and ventrals. The color of the living fish is bright red, with a black blotch on the posterior part of the gill covers; after death the lower parts become white ; the iris is yellow.
It is found on both sides of the Atlantic, and on the American coast from New York to the far north; it is called here rose fish, red perch, and snapper. It is abundant in Newfoundland, where it feeds on small fish. The spines of the dorsal are used as needles by the Greenlanders and Esquimaux.
Haddock (Morrhua aeglefinus).