I. Jean Baptiste, a French miniature painter, born in Nancy, April 11, 1767, died April 18, 1855. s He studied historical painting under David, but commenced his career by making portraits in crayons. About 1800 he determined to apply the principles of high art to miniature painting, and in 1802 his reputation was established by an extensive work, representing the first consul reviewing his troops in the court of the Tuileries; and thenceforth he remained at the very head of this branch of his art. Napoleon I., with whom he had been intimate in his youth, appointed him his miniature painter in ordinary, and the members of the Bonaparte family and the marshals and great dignitaries of the empire sat to him, besides many sovereigns and statesmen of Europe, of whom he painted a greater number than any contemporary. His Table des marechaux, on a large slab of porcelain, representing Napoleon surrounded by his most famous generals, is a good specimen of his large portrait pieces. His picture of one of the conferences at Vienna, whither he had followed Maria Louisa on the abdication of Napoleon in 1814, is valuable from the number of historic portraits it embraces.
II. Eugene Louis Gabriel, a French marine and landscape painter, son of the preceding, born in Paris, July 22, 1804. He studied art under his father. His "Battle of the Texel" (1839) is in Versailles, and his "Embarking of Ruyter" (1851) in the Luxembourg. His later works include "The Alchemist" (1865) and "The Temptation of St. Anthony " (1869).