Jean Pierre Boyer, a mulatto general and president of Hayti, born in Port-au-Prince in February, 1776, died in Paris, July 9, 1850. He was educated in France, and on his return to Hayti joined the revolted blacks, then struggling against the French for their independence. When the French gave up Fort St. Nicolas to the English, Boyer fought against the latter, and distinguished himself in the defence of the fort of Biroton, and in other dangerous enterprises. Soon afterward Toussaint l'Ouver-ture separated from the mulattoes, and Boyer, Petion, and others, retired to France. Boyer was appointed by Bonaparte a captain in the expedition fitted out in 1801, under Gen. Leclerc, and after its disastrous termination left the French service. In 1806 he served under Petion as commander of Port-au-Prince, and repelled the attacks of Christophe, who held part of the island with the title of emperor. At the death of Petion in 1818, Boyer was elected president; and after the death of Christophe in 1820, the empire was united to the republic. In 1824 Boyer annexed Santo Domingo, the Spanish part of the island, thus uniting the whole of Hayti. The country advanced during the earlier years of his administration, but afterward he became arbitrary and reckless.

Intimidated in 1825 by the appearance of a French squadron, he submitted to the claims of France, who demanded a monopoly of the trade and a compensation of 150,000,-000 francs for the confiscated estates of the white planters. The Haytians, oppressed by the debt he had foolishly brought upon them, rose in rebellion against him in 1842. He fled to Jamaica, and after the outbreak of the French revolution of Feb. 24, 1848, went to Paris, where he died.