Johann Friedrich Herbart, a German philosopher, born in Oldenburg, May 4, 1776, died in Gottingen, Aug. 14, 1841. At an early age ho acquired a knowledge of the philosophical systems of Wolf and Kant, and subsequently attended the lectures of Fichte at Jena. After teaching at Bern, where he was intimate with Pestalozzi, and wrote a treatise on his system of education, he went in 1802 to Gottingen, and in 1805 was appointed extraordinary professor. In 1809 he accepted the chair of philosophy at Konigsberg, whence he was recalled in 1833 to Gottingen. His philosophy was a reaction against the reigning idealism, and partakes at once of the empiricism of Locke and Condillac, the monadism of Leibnitz, the criticism of Kant, and the mathematical idealism of Bardili. His principal works are : Lehrbuch zur Einleitung in die Philosophic (Konigsberg, 1813; 4th ed., 1837); Lehrbuch zur Psychologie (1816; 3d ed., 1834); Psychologic, als Wissen-schaft neu gegrundct avf Erfahrung, Metaphy-sik und Mathemathik (2 vols., 1824-'5); All-gemeine Metaphysik nebst den Anfangen der philosophischcn Naturlehre (2 vols., 1828-'9); and the Encyklopadie der Philosophic cms praktischen Gesichtspunkten (Halle, 1831; 2d ed., 1841). His minor philosophical writings, with a biography by Hartenstein, were published at Leipsic (3 vols., 1841 - '3); his complete works were edited by Hartenstein (12 vols., Leipsic, 1850-'52).