Johann Friedrich Schulte, a German theologian, born at Wlnterberg, Westphalia, April 23, 1827. He graduated at the university of Berlin in 1851, and practised law in Berlin, Arns-berg, and Bonn. In 1855 he was appointed professor of canon law in the university of Prague, and in 1863 a member of the Austrian council of instruction. During the Vatican council he declared himself opposed to the declaration of pontifical infallibility; and after the proclamation of the dogma he took sides with Dr. Döllinger and the Old Catholics. In 1871 he published at Prague a pamphlet entitled "The Power of the Roman Popes over Princes, Countries, Peoples, and Individuals examined by the light of their Doctrines and Acts since the reign of Gregory VII., to serve for the appreciation of their Infallibility, and set face to face with contradictory doctrines of the Popes and Councils of the first Eight Centuries." To this Bishop Fessler of St. Polten replied in "The True and False Infallibility" (English ed., London and New York, 1875). Dr. Schulte, having resigned his offices in the university of Prague and the consistorial court, was in 1872 appointed by the German government professor in the university of Bonn. His principal, works are: System des katholischen Kirchenrechts (Giessen, 1856); Die Lehre von den Quellen den katholischen Kirchenrechts (1860); Lehrbuch des katholischen Kirchenrechts (1868); Lehrbuch der deutschen Reichs-und Rechtsgeschichte (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1861-'70); Die Rechtsfrage des Einflusses der Re-gierungen bei den Bischofswahlen (Giessen, 1869); and Die Macht der römischen Päpste, etc. (Prague, 1871).