I. Martin Heinrich

I. Martin Heinrich, a German chemist, born at Wernigerode, Dec. 1, 1743, died in Berlin, Jan. 1, 1817. After being engaged for some years in Berlin as a practical chemist, he became an apothecary in 1760, and in 1787 was appointed professor of chemistry in the school of artillery. He was among the first who labored industriously in the classification of minerals by means of scientific analysis. He is the discoverer of zirconium, titanium, uranium, and tellurium, He first proved that potassium was found in volcanic products and in white garnets, and made known molyb-date of lead and sulphate of strontium.

II. Heinrich Julius Von

II. Heinrich Julius Von, a German traveller and orientalist, son of the preceding, born in Berlin, Oct. 11, 1783, died in Paris in August, 1835. Until the age of 15 he applied himself to chemistry and natural science, and from that time to oriental languages. After two years spent at the university of Halle, he went in 1802 to Dresden, where he devoted eight months to the oriental MSS. of its library. Here he began the publication of the Asiatisches Magazin. The Russian government sent him in 1805 with an embassy to Peking; but being recalled before crossing the frontier, he remained six months at Irkutsk and studied several Asiatic tongues. From this place he explored alone, in 1806, a wide range of the northern Chinese frontier. He returned to St. Petersburg in 1807, and was sent on a mission to the then almost unknown mountain regions of the Caucasus. The results of his researches were so little favorable to the hope that Russia could readily acquire dominion over the country, that it was with the greatest difficulty that Klaproth obtained in 1810 permission to publish an account of his expedition. The annoyances which he experienced on this occasion determined him to quit Russia, and two years later (1812) he obtained leave to depart.

In 1814 he visited Italy, and finally went with the allied army to Paris, where he passed the remainder of his life. He remained for a long time the chief authority on various branches of Asiatic geography and philology; but of late the itineraries of his travels in central Asia have been subjected to most serious accusations, and Sir H. C. Rawlinson, in a " Monograph on the Oxus" read before the royal geographical society of London in 1872, declares the exposure of imposture in regard to three incriminated memoirs to have been fully established by Lord Strangford. His publications are: Reise in den Kaukasus, etc. (2 vols., Berlin, 1812-'14); Supplement au Dictionnaire cliinois-latin du Pere Basile de Glemona (Paris, 1819); Asia Polyglotta ou classification des peuples de l'Asie, etc. (1823-9); Tableauxhis-toriques de l'Asie, etc. (1824 - '6); Memoires relatifs a l'Asie (3 vols., 1824-'8); Tableau historique, etc, du Caucase(1827); Vocabulaire latin, persan et coreen (1828); Examen critique des travaux de M. Champollion jeune (1832). He left in MS. an extensive work, Nouveau Mithridate, ou Classification systematique de toutes les langues connues, which contains a grammatical sketch of most known languages, with a polyglot vocabulary of the five grand divisions of the world.

An English translation by F. Shoberl of his '"Travels in the Caucasus and Georgia, performed in 1807-'8," appeared in London in 1814.