Land Of The Don Cossacks, Or Province Of The Army Of The Don, a government of South Russia, lying between lat. 46° 10' and 51° 10' N., and Ion. 37° 10' and 44° 15' E., and bordering on the governments of Saratov, Astrakhan, Voronezh, Kharkov, and Yekaterinoslav, the sea of Azov, and Caucasia; area, 61,934 sq. m.; pop. in 18G7, 1,010,135. It is generally fiat and sandy, the greater part of it being a steppe, but in the south there are low hills, the last of the ramifications of the Caucasus. It belongs to the basin of the Don, which receives several important tributaries within its limits, the principal of which are the Donetz on the right bank, and the Manitch and the Khoper on the left. The climate is generally mild and agreeable, but intense cold and violent storms sometimes prevail in winter. Cattle raising is the chief employment of the inhabitants; but along the rivers, where the soil is good, agriculture is followed with lair results. The cereals are raised to some extent, as well as hemp and flax, and light wines, scarcely inferior to those of France, are made. Fish constitutes a large part of the food of the people, sturgeon, salmon, arid carp abounding in the rivers. Caviare made from the roe of the sturgeon is highly esteemed, and is exported in large quantities.

Another chief article of export is salt, which is made from saline lakes in the south of the province. The seat of government is at Novo-Tcherkask, at the confluence of the Aksai with an arm of the Don. (See Cossacks.)