Libourne, a town of France, in the department of Gironde, 16 m. E. N.. E. of Bordeaux; pop. in 1866, 14,639. It is beautifully situated at the entrance of the Isle into the Dordogne, which are respectively crossed here by large bridges, and on the railway from Tours to Bordeaux. It is well built, and contains a large square and fine houses and promenades. Among the various schools is one of hydrography. It has manufactories of woollen and other goods, ship yards and iron founderies, and an active trade in local products, particularly in wine, which passes for Bordeaux wine, though of very inferior quality. The port admits vessels of 300 tons, and was known to the Romans. In the 13th century it was fortified by Leyburn, an English knight from whom its present name is derived. It was the principal of the bastides or free towns founded by Edward I. at the highest point on the Dordogne suitable for English ships engaged in the wine trade, and at one time it seemed likely almost to rival Bordeaux. In the 16th century it was the focus of insurgent peasants, who were known as les guitres.

The parliament of Bordeaux was transferred to Libourne on several occasions.