Lncilio Vanini, an Italian philosopher, born at Taurisano about 1585, burned at the stake in Toulouse, Feb. 19, 1619. After studying at Eome and Padua, he entered holy orders, taught at Geneva, Paris, and Lyons, was obliged to flee to England, where he defended Roman Catholicism, and was imprisoned for some time. He next went to Genoa, and thence to Lyons, where in 1615 he published his Amphitheatrum Aeternce Procidentia, a curious argument against various forms of atheism, which however caused him to be suspected of a desire to spread atheistic doctrines. In Paris appeared in 1616 his volume of dialogues Be Admirandis Naturoe,, Reginoe Beceque Mortalium, Arcanis, which after being sanctioned was burned by order of the Sorbonne. He soon after removed to Toulouse, where his erudition and eloquence attracted numerous pupils, including the children of the president of the parliament. He was nevertheless, after a trial of six months, sentenced to death by the parliament as a free-thinker, despite his submission to the church. - See La vie et les sentiments de L. Vanini, by David Durand (Rotterdam, 1717), and (Euvres pliilosophiques de Vanini, by Rousselot (Paris, 1841).