Lorenzo Valla, an Italian scholar, born in Rome about 1410, died there or in Naples about 1460. He was ordained a priest in 1431, taught rhetoric in Pavia and other cities, and in 1435 went to Naples, where he gained the friendship of Alfonso I., and accompanied him in his wars and voyages. In 1443 he returned to Rome, where he incurred the hostility of the cardinals and Pope Eugenius IV. by attacking the authenticity of the instrument known as the "donation of Oonstantine," upon which the popes in great part based their claims to temporal sovereignty. Valla fled to Naples and opened a school, but became involved in theological controversies, and only escaped the inquisition through the protection of the king. He was subsequently received in Rome by Pope Nicholas V., to whom he presented a portion of the Homeric poems translated for the first time into Latin, and his translation of Thucydides, for which he received 500 crowns and the offices of apostolical secretary and canon of St. John Lateran. His works, including Elegantioe Linguoe Latinoe, in six books, were collected in 3 vols. fol. (Basel, 1543). - See Vahlen's Lorenzo Valla (Vienna, 1864).