Lynn, a city of Essex co., Massachusetts, bordering S. on Lynn harbor, an arm of Massachusetts bay, and S. E. on Nahant bay, separated from the harbor by the peninsula of Na-hant, which juts out in a S. direction from the city, at the junction of the Eastern railroad with its Saugus branch, 10 m. N. E. of Boston; pop. in 1850, 14,257; in 1860, 19,083; in 1870, 28,233, of whom 4,935 were foreigners. Its limits include a large plain in the south and west, raised but a few feet from the water level; a range of hills in the rear; a number of ponds known as the lakes of Lynn, beyond these; and in the northeast an elevated plain, the most pleasant and healthy portion of the city. The N. and W. parts are not thickly settled; in the remaining portions the streets are well paved and lighted with gas. There are a number of public squares, the principal of which is the common, in the S. part of the city. Pine Grove cemetery, N. of the populous section, is under the control of the city, and is handsomely laid out.

Further out is St. Mary's cemetery (Roman Catholic). A monument in memory of the soldiers who fell in the civil war was dedicated in 1873. Lynn is celebrated for its manufacture of shoes, in which it surpasses every other place in the United States. There are nearly 200 establishments engaged in the business, employing about 10,-000 hands. The shipments in 1871 were 200,-801 cases, containing 9,036,045 pairs; in 1872, 226,360 cases, 10,186,200 pairs; in 1873, 213,-080 cases, 9,528,600 pairs. The value of the shipments is from $13,000,000 to $14,000,000 a year. The larger part of the goods consists of low-priced shoes for women, misses, and children, though nearly every variety of sewed boots and shoes is made here. In 1873 there were 180 McKay sole-sewing machines in use in the city, and of the whole production 7,064,-467 pairs were bottomed on these machines. The manufacture of morocco, embracing kid and sheep skins as well as goat skins, is of considerable importance. From 15 to 20 manufacturers are engaged in the business, employing 400 workmen and about $1,000,000 capital. The largest factory is capable of tanning and finishing 5,000 skins a week.

There are also some minor manufactures, embracing machine needles, shoe machinery, boxes, carriages, cement, etc.; three national banks, with a joint capital of $1,000,000; two fire insurance companies; and two savings banks, with deposits in 1873 amounting to $3,018,102 82. - The city is divided into seven wards, and is governed by a mayor, a board of aldermen of 8 and a common council of 22 members. It has a fire department and a police force, and is supplied with water from Reed's pond in the 1ST. W. part of the city, by works erected at a cost of $800,000. The valuation of property in 1850 was $4,834,843; in 1855, $8,284,649; in 1860, $9,649,065; in 1865, $10,619,006; in 1870, $20,927,115; in 1873, $27,456,438. The taxation in 1873 amounted to $531,925 40, of which $34,402 50 was for state and $21,006 80 for county purposes. The expenditures were $858,642 69, the principal items of which were $33,144 36 for the fire department, $94,328 02 for interest, $188,275 73 for the introduction of water, $48,315 77 for laying out, altering, and lighting streets, $32,873 06 for the poor department, $24,125 10 for the police department, $5,000 for the public library, $103,447 39 for the school department (of which $71,-437 81 was for teachers' wages), $24,822 50 for salaries, and $42,257 65 for school houses.

The net debt, Jan. 1, 1874, was $1,785,303. The public schools are graded, and in a flourishing condition. The number of children of school age (5 to 15 years) in 1873 was 7,202; number of public day schools, 58 (1 high, 7 grammar, and 50 primary); number of teachers, 105 (7 male and 98 female); average number of pupils enrolled, 4,720; average attendance, 4,095; value of school property, $452,800. The number of evening schools taught was 8; number of teachers, 52; pupils enrolled, 845; average attendance, 481. The public library on Jan. 1, 1874, contained 18,-635 volumes and 3,027 pamphlets. A semi-weekly and three weekly newspapers are published. The number of churches is 30, viz.: 4 Baptist, 1 Christian, 4 Congregational, 2 Episcopal, 1 Freewill Baptist, 1 Friends', 8 Methodist, 2 Roman Catholic, 1 Second Advent, 2 Spiritualist, 1 Unitarian, 2 Universalist, 1 miscellaneous. - Lynn was settled in 1629, and incorporated as a city in 1850. Swampscott was taken from it in 1852, and Nahant in 1853.