Macassar, Or Mangkassar, (Also Called by the Dutch Vlaardingen).
I. A Dutch Government, comprising the S. W. portions of the island of Celebes, in the Malay archipelago; area (as claimed by the Dutch authorities), 45,689 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 345,912. (See Celebes.) The name Macassar or Mangassa is properly that of a people inhabiting the S. part of the island, and having a language of their own with a written character. They are comparatively civilized, and soon after the first visit of the Portuguese in 1525 became the dominant people of Celebes. They embraced Mohammedanism, which they forced upon the Bughis, the other principal race of the island. In 1669 they were subdued by the Dutch, who had recently driven out the Portuguese. The Dutch were themselves expelled by the British in 1811, but Macassar was restored to them with their other possessions in 1816.
II. A Town Of The Government, near the S. W. extremity of the island; pop. about 12,000. It is situated about 800 ft. from the beach, in a beautiful plain bounded inland by a range of mountains. It has a pier, at the end of which there is 15 or 16 ft. of water. The streets are wide, regular, and well built, most of the houses being of European construction. One street is set apart for the Chinese. The town is defended by Fort Rotterdam, a work of considerable strength, and surrounded by palisades, with gates which are closed at night. The climate is healthy, and storms are seldom experienced. Besides fisheries of tripang on the N. coast of Australia, and a large native traffic with almost every commercial place in the neighboring waters, Macassar has imports of piece goods, firearms, ammunition, cutlery, and woollens from the Netherlands, and nankeens, silks, sugar, tea, porcelain, etc, from China. It exports rice, cloves, nutmegs, sago, cotton wool, tortoise shell, and wax. It was made a free port by the Dutch in 1846.