Marcus Furius Camillus, a Roman magistrate, died of pestilence in 365 B. C. His name is connected with some of the greatest events in the history of the republic. His virtues and exploits are recorded, and probably exaggerated, by Livy and Plutarch. He appears first as censor in the year 403 B. C, then several times as consular tribune, five times as dictator, and twice as interrex. Having served during the siege of Veii, and in the war against Falerii, he defeated in his first dictatorship the Falisci, Oapenates, Fidenates, and other tribes, advanced to Yeii, penetrated through a subterranean passage into the city, and thus put an end to its siege, which had already lasted ten years. He made his triumphal entrance at Rome in a chariot drawn by four white horses, and asked the tenth part of the booty, to accomplish a vow to Apollo; whereupon his enemies accused him of pride and extortion. But he earned new glory by the conquest of Falerii. His continued opposition to the emigration of the people to Veii rendered him unpopular.

Having been charged with embezzling a part of the booty of that city, he left Rome, and was living in exile at Ardea when the Gauls under Brennus invaded and pillaged Rome. He repulsed them from Ardea, was secretly recalled by the defenders of the capitol, and appeared at Rome, according to a legend, at the head of an army, at the moment when the gold for which the Romans purchased peace was being weighed before the conqueror. " Rome buys her freedom with iron," he exclaimed, and attacking the Gauls routed them twice, had a new triumph, was called a second Romulus, and prevented the desertion of Rome, now in ruins. He subsequently defeated a coalition of the AEqui, Volsci, Etruscans, and Latins; was successful in a war against Antium; had to struggle against the rivalry of Manlius; endeavored in vain, as dictator for the fourth time (367), to resist the Licinian rogations in favor of the plebs; and, as dictator for the fifth time, was at the age of 80 again victorious over the Gauls.