Mississagas, an Algonquin tribe originally found, in the middle of the 17th century, at the mouth of a river of the same name north of Lake Huron. After the destruction of the Hurons they fled inland, and then moved to Keweenaw on Lake Superior, but returned before 1670 to their old ground. Missions were then attempted among them, but they were strongly attached to their superstitions and to polygamy. They took part in the assassination of the Sioux deputies at Sault Ste. Marie in 1673, which drew on the western Algonquins the fury of that nation. About 1700 they began to treat with the Five Nations, and to move eastward, so that by 1718 they were scattered along the northern line of the lakes from their old home to the Thousand Islands, most of them being north of Lake Ontario. When the struggle between France and England began, they were the only Canadian tribe whom the English won over through the Six Nations, who adopted them as a seventh nation in 1746. They aided the English in arms, and traded at Oswego; but the English neglected them, and when war again broke out the Mississagas showed little inclination to join them.

The mass of the nation were again secured by the French. After the fall of the French power they made a treaty with Col. Bradstreet, but took an active part in Pontiac's war. They were also active in the Miami war against the United States in 1792-'3, and in the hostile movements of the Six Nations in the war of 1812. Their only settlement in the United States was a temporary one at Erie; they are now in the province of Ontario, Dominion of Canada. Missions have been established among them since 1824 by the Methodists and the New England company, and they are improving. They comprise the Mississagas of Mud, Rice, and Scugog lakes, returned in"1869 at 315, and-in 1873 at 305. The Rice Lake Indians sold most of their lands in 1818 for an annuity of £740. Those on Scugog lake reside on 600 acres bought by them in 1843. All these bands cultivate the soil and have comfortable houses and chapels. In 1873 the Mississagas at Alnwick numbered 205; they formerly roamed destitute around Quinte bay. The Mississagas of Credit river, lately removed to the Grand, numbered 215 in 1873. They embraced Christianity and began to improve in 1824 under the exertions of the Rev. Peter Jones, a half-breed.