Mogul Emperor Zahir Cd-Din Mohammed Baber, born in 1482 or 1483, died in December, 1530. He was a descendant of Tamerlane, his father being sultan of Khokan, a Tartar kingdom on the Jaxartes. On his father's death, which happened when he was 11 or 12 years old, the kingdom was seized by his uncle, the sultan of Samarcand, but Baber succeeded in maintaining his rights. Baber's early life was a succession of wars with his neighbors. He was obliged to fly, and went to Khorasan with 300 followers, where he sought assistance from the sultan, which was refused. A number of Mongols joined his standard, and Baber marched on Cabool in Afghanistan, which he captured in 1504. The following year he made an irruption into the Punjaub, but did not cross the Indus, and returned to Cabool. He became involved in dissensions in Khorasan in 1506, and for many years was occupied with attempts to recover his paternal possessions. In 1519 he again descended into Hindostan, crossed the Indus, and conquered some towns in the Punjaub. In 1524 he advanced to Lahore, which he captured and burned.

The next year he advanced to Paniput, about 50 miles from Delhi. Here he encountered the troops of Sultan Ibrahim Lodi, the Afghan sovereign of Delhi, and completely vanquished him, April 27, 1526. Baber's lieutenants occupied Delhi and Agra, while his son Humayun routed another Afghan army, and Baber himself marched south against the Hindoos, and gained a victory over Rana Sanka, the most powerful of their princes. From this time Baber occupied himself in consolidating his extensive dominions. He made roads with stations for travellers; directed the land to be measured with a view to equable taxation; planted gardens and introduced fruit trees; and established a line of post houses from Agra to Cabool. To great political and military talents Baber joined literary tastes and accomplishments. He wrote a history of his own life in the Mongol language, which has been translated. He founded a dynasty in India which lasted almost three centuries, and embraced among its members Akbar and Au-rungzebe. He was succeeded by Humayun, the oldest of his three sons.