Friedland. I. A town of Prussia, in the province of East Prussia, on the Alle, 27 m. S. E. of Konigsberg; pop. in 1868, 2,478. It has manufactures of linen and woollen cloth and leather, and a trade in cattle. It is memorable for a victory won by Napoleon over the Russians under Benningsen, June 14, 1807, which led to the treaty of Tilsit. The French had between 70,000 and 80,000 men, and lost 8,000 men and two eagles; the Russians, who numbered about 55,000, lost 17,000 men and about 80 guns. Benningsen succeeded in crossing the river and fell back to Tilsit, on the Niemen, where the treaty between the French and Russians was concluded July 7.

II. A town of Bohemia, on the Wittich, at its confluence .with the Rasnitz, 68 m. N. N. E. of Prague; pop. in 1870, 4,331. It is a walled town, has manufactures of woollen, linen, and cotton cloth, and paper, and a considerable trade. The castle of Friedland, on a conical hill in the S. part of the town, is a picturesque structure surrounded by a lofty wall and surmounted by a high tower. It belonged, with the accompanying lordship, to Wallenstein, who derived from it his title of duke of Friedland. It is now the property of Count Clam-Gallas.

III. A town of Germany, in the grand duchy of Mecklenburff-Strelitz, 48 m. N. W. of Stet-tin; pop. in 1871, 5,031. It is a walled town, and has two churches, one a fine Gothic structure, and a gymnasium. Its manufactures are woollen and linen cloths, copper ware, and tiles. It has three annual fairs and an active trade in cattle; tobacco is also cultivated. The town was founded in 1244 by the margraves John and Otho III. of Brandenburg.