On November 15, 1889, a startling report was received that Dom Pedro, Emperor of Brazil, had been deposed, and that the former empire of Brazil had been declared a republic. Later advices confirmed the report, with many particulars of the peaceful revolution which had been accomplished on the previous day.

The new republic is the largest of the South American countries, and covers an area estimated at from 3,000,000 to 3,219,000 square miles. In other words it is as large as the United States and the Territories, exclusive of Alaska. Its population in 1883 was estimated at 12,002,-978, including slaves and aborigines. It was divided into twenty provinces, now States each with a autonomous government. The largest city is Rio de Janeiro, the population of which is about 500,000. Each of the two cities of Bahia and Pernambuco contains between 100,000 and 200,000 inhabitants. The population is increasing largely by immigration, about 36,000 immigrants having landed in 1887.

Until 1815 Brazil was a province of Portugal; in that year it was made a kingdom of the empire of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves by Dom John I, who had fled from Portugal before Napoleon. Brazil declared its independence of Portugal in 1822, and has since been an independent empire. Its ex-emperor, Dom Pedro II, has ruled the country with moderation for fifty-eight years, beloved by his people and respected by all who came in contact with him either as a ruler or as a man.

The provisional government proclaimed after the desposition of the emperor was announced as follows: President, Deodoro da Fonseca; minister of finance, Dr. Ruy Barbosa; minister of justice, Campos Selles; minister of Interior, Aristides Lobo; minister of foreign affairs, Equisetino Bocoyura; minister of war, Benjamin Constant; minister of marine, Admiral Vandenkock; minister of agriculture; Dimitrio Ribero.