Fourth Lesson. In drawing lines, the hand should rest upon the two last fingers, - if the lines are short the motion of the hand should not extend beyond the wristjoint; but if the lines are long, then the land will glide over the paper easily, if it is carefully balanced and rests upon these fingers, while the motion of the hand proceeds from the elbow or from the shoulder.

As you have already practised curved lines and circles, you will no doubt be able to copy this example, which is the outline of the volute of an Ionic capital from the Eric-theum, at Athens. It is needless to describe how it should be drawn, because if you have attended to the rules already given, you will be able to know how to proceed at once. Copy this example over and over again, enlarging and diminishing the copy, until your eye has become familiar with the figure; then endeavour to form its outline without having the example before you. When you have accomplished your task, you will be better prepared to copy the next example.

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This drawing is a combination of curved and straight lines so arranged that they form the outline of the base of a column, and by copying this example frequently, you will acquire a very good idea of proportion. If you had not exercised yourself in drawing straight and curved lines, you could not have drawn this figure. You may, therefore, look upon straight and curved lines as the letters or alphabet of drawing.

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Fig. 14.

Here is another example, composed of straight and curved lines, but differently arranged. In drawing this, commence by making a faint horizontal line upon the paper; then place a dot at a proper distance above, for the centre part of the arch; from this dot draw the right hand curved line until it meets the horizontal one, then place another dot a little above the horizontal line, at nearly the same distance as the height of the arch from it, and draw two parallel curved lines close together, from the top of the first curved line to the dot you have just placed on the paper. You have now formed the outline of the arch. Draw a horizontal line from each side of the top of the arch, and at the respective distances draw other lines parallel to it; then draw perpendicular lines between the horizontal ones, and you will now have formed the masonry. Sketch in the lines of the two banks, commencing with the left one, and afterwards sketch in the stones on the right of the base of the arch. At rather more than half the length of the

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Fig. 15.

left-hand curved lines place a dot, and another, at about two-thirds the distance from the base of the right-hand curved line; connect these two dots by a curved line, and then sketch in the masonry of the archway, as in the example; all that now remains for you to do is to fill in the shading, which is done by making short parallel strokes at equal distances from each other, as in the example before you.

The next object that you are required to copy, is a pyramid, and you observe that the first example is sketched only in outline, in order that you may clearly understand how it is done.

When you have drawn the outline correctly several times, you may commence the next example (fig. 17) which you observe, is carefully shaded by drawing tine perpendicular parallel lines between the transverse lines, and all of them at equal distances.

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Fig. 16.

The shading at the base is drawn in a similar manner ; the only difference being that the lines are horizontal, instead of perpendicular.

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Fig. 17.

The next example is the outline of a pillar with a millstone resting against it (fig. 18); and when you have sketched this, it must be filled in, the same as the other example (tig. 19), which shows the same objects shaded, according to the method we have already pointed out. The weeds and grass require a few extra touches with an Hb pencil, and the outline should be strengthened in the dark parts.

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Fig. 18.

Practise these examples frequently, particularly the weeds at the top of the pillar, and the shading.

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Fig. 19.

When you are able to draw these examples as they are represented here, draw them backwards; in other words. place the millstone on the right instead of the left of the pillar.

Draw examples 17 and 19, and shade them as if the light was on the left.