Third Lesson. You must now turn your attention to the drawing of curved lines. Unless you can draw a curved line accurately, in any direction, you can never hope to delineate the human figure or animals in a proper manner; for the outlines of both the animal and vegetable kingdoms are made up of curved lines of every variety. It is needless to give a long list of examples; the student will easily observe them in the objects around him, from the horse to the cat or diminutive mouse; or from the gay butterfly that soars above him, to the gnat, from which it has been transformed; or from the lofty oak to the humble acorn.
Commence practising the formation of curved lines, by drawing several like (a fig. 10,) and then, when you are able to do so accurately and easily, draw parallel lines with a greater curve, as (b fig. 10). When
To draw a Circle. - Perhaps one of the most difficult tasks for the beginner is to draw a circle; but like everything else, it is easily done when you know how to set about it. Commence the task by making a faint dot upon the paper to mark the centre ; then place another dot on either side of it and at equal distances, and continue placing dots at equal distances all around the central one, until a circle of dots is formed; you must then join all the dots with a steady and 6low sweep of the hand, beginning at the top of the circle, and drawing from left to right, and right round from the point at which you started. Practise this several times as it will give you precision, and enable you to observe the relative distance of the outer part of the circle from the centre. Do not attempt to use compasses to draw a circle. They will not assist you ; on the contrary, when you are without them, you will be at a loss, and unable to accomplish your object Persevere, and practise continually, and your labours will be rewarded.
When eu have drawn a few dozen circles by the aid of the dots, draw some without making any marks upon the paper or board: sometimes drawing from left to right, and at other times, from right to bit.
Draw one circle within another, so that their margins shall be parallel, as in the portion of one shown in b fig. 10.
Draw a semicircle, (as f in fig. 10), and then practise forming d and e in the same figure, until you can join lines neatly, sometimes commencing from the lower part of the figures, and at other times, from the upper part.
Divide circles into sections, so as to exhibit the half, a quarter, a third, or other divisions of a circle.
Draw squares, polygons, and triangles within circles, and then construct a circle within a square.
Copy the following figure, and then pro-
Fig. 11 ceed to draw the three following outlines, which you will no doubt do correctly and readily, from the practice you have already had in the curved lines. Be careful in
copying a and c, to make the left hand lines darker than those to the right, while b has lines of each breadth. It is well to use the pencil marked HB for this purpose, the different thickness of the lines being produced by the degree of pressure employed.