Second Lesson. As you are now prepared to commence your drawing, please 6eat yourself properly at the table, and make an effort to form straight horizontal lines, like a (fig 2), and observe that they are to be parallel, and at equal distances from one another. When you have succeeded in drawing a dozen of these lines the size of the copy, you should then try to form some twice the length, and then go on, increasing the length of them, until you are able to draw lines a yard in length with a piece of chalk upon a black board.
To draw horizontal straight lines. - First make a dot upon the paper where you are to commence, and another where the line is to terminate (as c, fig 2.) then draw a line, between the two, from left to right, the same as between these two points.
Continue to do this until you are able to draw the lines straight and horizontal; then practise making perpendicular lines. To draw perpendicular straight lutes, proceed the same as it drawing horizontal lines; that is, by making dots or points first, and commence with short lines, like the upper one of b (fig 2). Then increase the length, until they double and quadruple the original ones.
When you have succeeded in drawing either horizontal or perpendicular straight lines, repeat the exercises with the different pencils, so as to give greater breadth to some lines than to others; and sometimes draw the lines very close together, at other times very wide apart, and afterwards fill up the intervening spaces with lines. By this means you will acquire a correct eye and idea of the rudiments of form and proportion.
To draw oblique lines, you should place the dots upon the paper as usual, and practise forming lines from right to left (as d, fig. 2), and afterwards from left to right (as f, fig. 2). When you have acquired sufficient command of your pencil to form the various lines correctly, quickly, and freely, join two of them together, so as to appear like e (fig 2).
Draw the lines whether they be oblique or slanting, perpendicular or upright, and herizontal, or in a line with the floor, in every kind of manner, sometimes beginning at the right hand side and sometimes at the left ; at one time at the top of the line, at another at the bottom of it. Do this, practise often, strive to overcome all obstacles, and depend upon it you will accomplish •wonders.
As you have learned to draw straight lines parallel to one another, it will be necessary to make you connect them in some way, so as to form the outline of an object.
Draw two straight lines parallel to one another (like a, in fig. 3); then connect the ends of them by a small curved line, and from that draw a short perpendicular and a short horizontal line (as b, in tig. 3) ; repeat, until the outline of a set of steps is complete.
Draw a horizontal straight line, and from either extremity of it draw two perpendicular straight lines (as in c, tig. 3).
Draw two oblique lines, so that their lower extremities shall meet (as in a, fig. 4). Then draw two parallel straight lines, so that the beginning of the upper one shall be almost immediately over the end of the lower one, and join the ends of these lines with oblique lines (as b, in fig. 4).
Draw a perpendicular straight line, and from the upper end of it, an oblique line from right to left ,then unite the end of the oblique line to another oblique line (as in c, fig. 4). Draw a perpendicular, line, and from the lower part of it draw a horizontal line from right to left, (as b, in fig. 5).
Draw four horizontal lines, and then join their extremities by four perpendicular lines fas in a, fig. 5). This will represent a block of wood (called a cube in geometry), having six facet, and eight corners or angles, like a die.
Here is another geometrical figure which you are requested to copy. To do so correctly, begin by making two dots and then forming the upper line; then calculate that the distance of the second line is twice the depth of the fore part of the stone (which is represented in fig. 6), and draw a very faint short stroke to fix the distance. You must now fix the place to commence the second line, and you therefore place a dot at about the same depth as the forepart of the stone towards the right and another dot at about one and a half of the depth from the right of the end of the upper line; then draw a line between the two dots. Join the ends of these two lines by oblique lines, as represented in the figure above, and proceeding in the same manner to place dots upon the paper for the other parts, draw the short perpendicular lines and the oblique and horizontal lines The figure is now complete in outline, and you must therefore finish it by the addition of a few strokes and dots, as shown in the figure.
To form the outline of the figure, use a F pencil, and a HB to fill in the other strokes.
Here is another figure that you must practise frequently, because it will give you a fair knowledge of the combination of form and proportion, and will school your eyes to the perspective of solids. In this, as in all cases, proceed by making dots before you commence drawing your lines; and we merely repeat this again because we wish our pupils to understand most distinctly that no line should be drawn until the length of it has been marked upon the paper by dots. When you have drawn the upper horizontal lino (of a, in fig. 7), draw a perpendicular line from each end of it, and let each of these lines be one and a half the length of the horizontal line; then unite the two lower ends of the perpendicular lines. Now draw a faint horizontal line along the base of a, and at about half the height of the oblong a place a dot on the faint horizontal line, and another dot at rather more than a third of the length of the dot just placed upon the line from the left lower angle of the oblong. You must then place a dot at about half the length of the above distance above the horizontal line and the same distance from the second dot as the width of the base a. From these several dots, draw oblique lines, (as in b, fig. 7), and join them by other lines, as shown in the figure. You must now draw other short lines from the oblique ones to the face of the oblong, and finish the figure by a few short strokes at the base, as shewn in the above figure.
It is required to represent the two sides of a pyramid. Draw two faint horizontal lines b c, and another one a, perpendicular to them, then draw a line from c to b, commencing at the place where a cuts c; then draw another line from c to b one third longer than the line on the right of a, commencing at the point of junction between a and c. Place a dot on the left of the perpendicular a at nearly the same distance from it, as the I space between the lines b and c and twice the length of the oblique line on the right of its base, between the lines b c. From this point or dot, draw lines to meet those drawn before, and the figure will be complete.
Draw a horizontal line, a b, and then draw a perpendicular line, c d, across it (a in fig. 9).
You will have formed four right angles a e c, c e b, b e d, d e a; but we are not going to study angles now ; that is not our object. We wish you to notice our remarks and practise the figure ; then when you can draw this well, you should draw the lines in different directions so near that c may be brought nearer to b, and d to a; by this means you will form various kinds of angles.