Having directed your attention to the preliminary and important points connected with light and shade, it now becomes necessary to make some observations upon shading.
In shading there are three kinds of manipulation requisite - 1st, waving; 2nd, stippling; and 3rd, cross-hatching. There are certain rules connected with shading which must be generally observed; for it will be found that much of the appearance of objects depends upon the shading employed; for it is by means of the kind of lines used that the projection of bodies from one another, and the appearance of the materials of which they are constructed, are conveyed to those who only possess the opportunity of viewing the sketch. Colour is at all times better adapted to depict the skies, portraits, etc, than drawings of uniform tint, however well the latter may be executed
The strokes used in shading may be of uniform thickness or not, and they may
also be placed at regular or irregular distances. If of uniform thickness (as a, fig. 30), they give the same tone to a drawing that one colour would, if it were placed upon the paper; but if the same strokes are drawn closer together in one part of the drawing than in the other (as a, fig. 30), then that part will have a deeper tone. The same result holds good with respect to oblique lines (as in b, fig. 30). If the lines become darker or broader, and nearer to each other as they recede from the light, then they will convey the impression of an increased depth of tone (as in c, fig. 30), whether the lines be oblique, perpendicular, or horizontal. All lines used in shading do not take the same direction, as in addition to those mentioned above some are semi-circular. Here is a figure (fig. 31) that combines outline and shading, and firms an excellent study for the beginner in both, as in the former lesson, it serves to illustrate the beauty and grace of curved lines, and in the latter, of uniformity of shading.
Waving shading is produced by a succession of strokes close together, by using a soft pencil (F or B) with a worn point. If these lines are made with a fine-pointed pencil, there is not a uniformity of tint produced, and therefore the lines should not overlap one another, but be drawn as in fig. 32. Foregrounds, and deeply-cast shadows, broken earth, etc, require this kind of shading.
Stippling consists of a series of dots, which impart a depth or lightness of shade, just as they are made large or small, or closer or farther apart; the general rule being to make the large and close together in the depth of the shade, and gradually small and wider apart as the light is approached.
Cross-hatching is produced by drawing a number of lines in such a manner that they cross one another at right angles. They should always be commenced from the outline as in fig. 33, and one direction of lines finished before the other cross them ; otherwise unevenness of tone Mill be produced. They should always be thinner as they approach the light, and also wider apart. In curved objects it is necessary to observe the relative convexity and concavity of the surfaces, and to represent them bylines exhibiting a greater or lesser curvature, taking care to increase their breadth in certain parts, and diminish them in others, as may be seen in the most common engravings of concave or convex objects.
The general rule for shading is, that flat surfaces must be represented by straight lines; convex and concave surfaces by curved lines, as in fig. 34, which represents a ball, and shows the manner of increasing the depth of tone by drawing the lines closer to each other ; and
all surfaces of a mixed appearance must bo dealt with according to circumstances; some parts requiring curved and other straight lines, while others again will require cross-hatched lines both curved and straight.
Remember that much of the perfection of shading consists in the knowledge of how much you can do, and no more, and how much your pencil will do. In order to attain perfection or even mediocrity in this department of drawing, you should practise strokes of every description, with each kind of pencil, upon sheets of paper, marked at the top thus - H: H.H; H.H.H : etc., and practise with fine-pointed and worn-pointed pencils, sometimes plain, at other times curved, and also cross-hatched strokes. By this means you will ascertain the power of your hand, and the tone of your pencil.
It is contrary to our practice to recommend any person's wares, and therefore we refrain upon the present occasion. However, we would advise our pupils always to purchase the best drawing materials. They are the cheapest in the long run, and will always reflect credit upon the draughtsman. Bad tools often make bungling workmen.