Seventh Lesson. As you are now able to draw outlines correctly, it will be necessary to study light, shade and reflection, which will give the appearance of substance to the objects you wish to delineate.
If we consider light as applied to drawing, we must do so under four distinct heads, - 1st, as natural light, or that emanating from the sun when it rises, "At morning, flinging wide Its curtain-clouds of purple and vermilion, Dispensing life and light on every side;"
2nd, as artificial light, or that derived from combustible bodies; 3rd, as direct light, or that light which reaches an object directly, without passing through or being reflected from one object upon another ; and 4th, reflected light, or that light which, when it is received by one object, is thrown off or reflected upon another, as from glass or water.
However, we must request our pupils to try some simple experiments for themselves with regard to light before they enter upon their drawing-lesson of light and shade,
Place a cork upon the table in front of your window, and let its end rest upon a sheet of paper. You will observe a pyramidical dark shadow, the base of which commences at the cork, and also a pyra-midical faint shadow, the apex or point of which corresponds with the base of the dark shadow; and you will also observe that a portion of the cork is faintly, another portion deeply, and another portion .semi-shadowed,
Place the cork upon its side, and you will obtain nearly the same results; but with this difference, that the shadows are broader, and the effect produced less striking.
Roll up a piece of paper so as to form a cone, gum down one of the corners, and cut off the base, so as to be even ; then set this upon a piece of paper, and you will obtain the same shadows as when you employed the cork, which may be easily proved by placing them side by side.
Many similar and simple objects will readily suggest themselves to the pupil, and should be used as familiar examples to practise light and shade.
From what you have seen, it will be evident that all opaque or non-transparent objects, upon which light happens to fall, must be partially in shadow, whether the light falling upon them be reflected, natural or artificial; while other parts will be illuminated, and therefore placed in strong contrast with those parts of the object that are in shadow.
Shading is intended to impart the appearance of solidity to objects, so that the amount of depth of shading in a drawing conveys the idea to the mind of the beholder - 1st, that the object delineated is in relief,or projects from those surrounding it; 2nd, as regards the relative position of one object with regard to another; and 3rd, the distinctive distances of objects from the person viewing them.
Shadows are either natural or accidental. Natural shadows are those that the lover of nature beholds as he rambles through the lone copse, the tangled wood, or river's margin, where
" The barks at anchor cast their lengthened shades On the gray bastioned walls."
Those who aspire to be artists - nay, even the timid amateur, content to toil over the well-beaten path that thousands have journeyed, over before - must ever be on the alert to gather studies from nature, as
"The shades of evening softly creep" over the gentle slopes where innocent lambs feed, or frisking kids nip the tender grass; nor must they despise the lessons furnished by many a quickset hedge or ruined wall, over which
" Some trees Whose massy outline of reposing shade" seem placed to tempt the artist to linger on his journey and take a sketch. We have several lovely sketches of what artists term " bits," snatched in haste from many a bright spot where we have rested in our rambles, even as the
" shadows, nursed by Night, retire," or the sun's bright beams were first welcomed by returning morn. These each convey lessons - pleasing lessons - not only of artistic but of religious instruction, which gushes forth as we view their beauties. To enjoy such thoughts, to sketch such views, and to treasure up their lessons, we must leave the busy haunts of men, and freed from care, and toil, and noise, seat ourselves beneath the umbrageous arms of some ancient tree, and gaze upon
" A surface dappled o'er with shadows, flung From many a brooding cloud."
If a ball is placed upon the table, and a ray of light is allowed to fall upon it, the side near to the light will appear different from the other part upon which the light does not fall, as may be seen in fig 29, in which
A represents the point from which the ray of light proceeds until it falls upon part of the ball, d e, which thus receives direct light, while the other part (c) is in natural shadow or shade. You will also observe that there is a long pyramidical shadow thrown upon the table, the result of the non-transparency of the ball.