September is literally the seventh month of the year according to the ancient Roman calendar, as established by Romulus, hut the ninth of Numa's year It derives its name from Septem, seven, and imber, a shower of rain, as this is generally the commencement of the rainy season. The Senate of Rome would have named it Tiberius, in honour of that emperor, but he rejected the compliment. Domitian called it Ger-manicus. It was also named Antoninus in honour of Antoninus Pius; and Commodus called it Herculeus; but the name of September, though improper if we consider its place in the number of months, has out-lived every other appellation. Originally the month had only sixteen days assigned to it in the old Alban calendar; but they were increased to thirty by Romulus, and to thirty-one by Julius Caesar, while Augustus reduced the number of days to thirty, as they exist at the present time.

Our Saxon ancestors called this month Gerst Monath. Verstegan informs us that the reason it was thus called was, "that barley, which that monath commonly yeelded, was antiently called gerst, the name of barley being given unto it by reason of the drinke therewith made, called beere, and from beerlegh it came to be berlegh, and from berlegh to barley. So, in like manner, beereheym - to wit, the over-decking or covering of beere - came to be berham, and afterwards barme, having since gotten I wot not how many names besides. This excellent and healthsome liquor, beere, antiently also called ael, as of the Danes it yet is (beere and ale being in effect all one), was first of the Germans invented and brought into use."

The Synonymes of the month are - in Latin, September; French, Septembre; Italian, Settembre ; and Portuguese, Setembro.

September 443

This month is allegorically represented as a young man dressed in purple, with a wreath of white and purple grapes upon his head, and with a merry countenance.

Under his left arm he holds a bundle of oats, and in his right-hand a cornucopia of the ripe fruits of the season. The sign of Libra, the balance, on his right, is symbolical of the sun entering that constellation on the 23rd of the month.

*On Monday, the 5th day of September, 1774, there were assembled at Carpenter's Hall, in the city of Philadelphia, a number of men who bad been chosen and Appointed by the several colonies in North America to hold a Congress For the purpose of discussing certain grievances imputed against the mother country. This Congress resolved, on the next day, that each colony should have one vote only. On Tuesday, the 2d July, 1776, the Congress resolved, " That these United Colonies are and of right ought to be free and independent States," etc., and on Thursday, the 4th of July, the whole Declaration of Independence having been agreed upon, it was publicly read to the people. Shortly after, on the 9th of September, it was resolved that the words " United Colonies" should be no longer used, and that the " United States Of America," should thenceforward be the style and title of the Union. On Saturday, the 15th November, 1777, " Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union of the United States of America" were agreed to by the State delegates, subject to the ratification of the State legislatures severally. Eight of the States ratified these articles on the 9th July, 1778 ; one on the 21st July ; one on the 24th July ; one on the 26th November of the same year ; one on the 22d February, 1779 ; and the last one on the 1st March, 1781. Here was a bond of union between thirteen independent States, whose delegates in Congress legislated for the general welfare, and executed certain powers, so far as they were permitted by the articles aforesaid. The following are the names of the Presidents of the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1788.

Peyton Randolph, Virginia, 5th September, 1774.

Henry Middleton, South Carolina, 22d October, 1774.

Peyton Randolph, Virginia, 10th May, 1775.

John Hancock, Massachusetts, 24th May, 1776.

Henry Laurens, South Carolina, 1st November, 1777.

John Jay, New York, 10th December, 1778.

Samuel Huntingdon, Connecticut, 28th September, 1779.

Thomas McKean, Delaware, 10th July, 1781.

John Hanson, Maryland, 5th November, 1781.

* From Wells' " IllustratED National Handbook. New York: J. G. Wells. Price 50 Cts.

Elias Boudinot, New Jersey, 4th Novem ber, 1732.

Thomas Mifflin, Pennsylvania, 3d November, 1783.

Richard Henry Lee, Virginia, 30th November, 1784.

Nathaniel Gorham, Massachusetts, 6th January, 1786.

Arthur St. Clair, Pennsylvania, 2d February, 1787.

Cyrus Griffin, Virginia, 22d January, 1788.

The seat of government was established as follows :

At Philadelphia, Pa., commencing September 5, 1774 and .May 10,1775.

At Baltimore, Md., December 20,1776.

At Philadelphia, Pa., March 4,1777.

At Lancaster, Pa, September 27,1777.

At York, Pa., September 30,1777.

At Philadelphia, Pa., July 2, 1778.

At Princeton, N. J., June 30, 1783.

At Annapolis, Md., November 26, 1783.

At Trenton, N. J., November 1,1784.

At New York, N. Y., Jan. 11, 1785.

The Constitution was adopted on the 17th of September, 1787, by the Convention appointed in pursuance or the resolution of the Congress of the Confederation, of the 21st of February, 1787, and ratified by the conventions of the several States as follows :

By convention of Delaware, 7th December, 1787.

By convention of Pennsylvania, 12th December, 1787.

By convention of New Jersey, 18th December, 1787.

By convention of Georgia, 2d January, 1788.

By convention of Connecticut, 9th January, 1788.

By convention of Massachusetts, 6th February, 1788.

By convention of Maryland, 28th April, 1788.

By convention of South Carolina, 23d May, 1788.

By convention of New Hampshire, 21st June, 1788.

By convention of Virginia, 26th June, 1788.

By convention of New York, 26th July, 1788.

By convention of North Carolina, 21st November, 1789.

By convention of Rhode Island, 29th May, 1790.

The first ten of the amendments to the United States Constitution were proposed on the 25th day of September, in the year 1789, and ratified by the constitutional number of States on the 15th of December, 1797. The eleventh amendment was proposed on the 8th of January, 1798, and the twelfth on the 25th of September, 1804.