This section is from the "Henley's Twentieth Century Formulas Recipes Processes" encyclopedia, by Norman W. Henley and others.
To Mend Wedgwood Mortars. —It is easy enough to mend mortars so that they may be used for making emulsions and other light work which does not tax their strength too much. But a mended mortar will hardly be able to stand the force required for powdering hard substances. A good cement for mending mortars is the following:
Glass flour elutriated. 10 parts Fluorspar, powdered and elutriated..... 20 parts
Silicate of soda...... 60 parts
Both glass and fluorspar must be in the finest possible condition, which is best done by shaking each in fine powder, with water allowing the coarser particles to deposit, and then to pour off the remainder, which holds the finest particles in suspension. The mixture must be made very rapidly by quick stirring, and when thoroughly mixed must be at once applied. This is said to yield an excellent cement.
Freshly burnt plaster of Paris............ 5 parts
Freshly burnt lime .... 1 part White of egg, sufficient.
Reduce the first two ingredients to every fine powder and mix them well; moisten the two surfaces to be united with a small quantity of white of egg to make them adhesive; then mix the powder very rapidly with the white of egg and apply the mixture to the broken surfaces. If they are large, two persons should do this, each applying the cement to one portion. The pieces are then firmly pressed together and left undisturbed for several days. The less cement is used the better will the articles hold together.
If there is no objection to dark-colored cement, the very best that can be used is probably marine glue. This is made thus: Ten parts of caoutchouc or india rubber are dissolved in 120 parts of benzine or petroleum naphtha, with the aid of a gentle heat. When the solution is complete, which sometimes requires from 10 to 14 days, 20 parts of asphalt are melted in an iron vessel and the caoutchouc solution is poured in very slowly in a fine stream and under continued heating, until the mass has become homogeneous and nearly all the solvent has been driven off. It is then poured out and cast into greased tin molds. It forms dark brown or black cakes, which are very hard to break. This cement requires considerable heat to melt it; and to prevent it from being burnt it is best to heat a capsule containing a piece of it first on a water bath until the cake softens and begins to be liquid. It is then carefully wiped dry and heated over a naked flame, under constant stirring, up to about 300° F. The edges of the article to be mended should, if possible, also be heated to at least 212° F., so as to permit the cement to be applied at leisure and with care. The thinner the cement is applied the better it binds.