I

Up to the present this has generally been accomplished by the use of a combination of water glass or soluble glass and tungstate of soda. The following is cheaper and more suitable for the purpose:

Equal parts, by weight, of commercial white copperas, Epsom salt, and sal ammoniac are mingled together and mixed with three times their weight of ammonia alum. This mixture soon changes into a moist pulp or paste, that must be dried by a low heat. When dressing the material, add 0.5 part of this combination to every 1 part of starch.

II

Good results are also obtained from the following formula: Supersaturate a quantity of superphosphate of lime with ammonia, filter, and decolorize it with animal charcoal. Concentrate the solution and mix with it 5 per cent of gelatinous silica, evaporate the water, dry, and pulverize. For use mix 30 parts of this powder with 35 parts of gum and 35 parts of starch in sufficient water to make of suitable consistency.

III

As a sample of the Melunay process, introduced in France, the following has been published: Apply to a cotton fabric like flannellet, or other cotton goods, a solution of stannate of soda (or a salt chemically equivalent) of the strength of 5 to 10° Be., then dry the fabric and saturate it again, this time with a solution of a titanium salt; any soluble titanium salt is suitable. This salt should be so concentrated that each 1,000 parts may contain about 62 parts of titanium oxide. The fabrics are again dried, and the titanium is ultimately fixed by means of a suitable alkaline bath. It is advantageous to employ for this purpose a solution of silicate of soda of about 14° Be., but a mixed bath, composed of tungstate of soda and ammonium chloride, may be employed. The objects are afterwards washed, dried, and finished as necessary for trade. A variation consists in treating the objects in a mixed bath containing titanium, tungsten, and a suitable solvent.

IV

Boil together, with constant stirring, the following ingredients until a homogeneous mass results:

Linseed oil..........   77 parts

Litharge............   10 parts

Sugar of lead........     2 parts

Lampblack..........     4 parts

Oil turpentine........     2 parts

Umber.............     0.4 parts

Japanese wax......     0.3 parts

Soap powder........     1.2 parts

Manila copal........     0.7 parts

Caoutchouc varnish..     2 parts

V

For Light Woven Fabrics.— Ammonium sulphate, 8 parts, by weight; ammonium carbonate, 2.5 parts; borax, 2; boracic acid, 3; starch, 2; or dextrin, 0.4, or gelatin, 0.4; water, 100. The fabric is to be saturated with the mixture, previously heated to 86° F., and dried; it can then be calendered in the ordinary way. The cost is only 2 or 3 cents for 16 yards or more of material.

VI

For Rope and Straw Matting. Ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac), 15 parts, by weight; boracic acid, 6 parts; borax, 3; water, 100. The articles are to be left in the solution, heated to 212° F. for about 3 hours, then squeezed out and dried. The mixture costs about 5 cents a quart.

VII

For Clothing.—The following starch is recommended: Sodium tungstate, perfectly neutral, 30 parts', borax, 20; wheat or rice starch, 60. The constituents are to be finely pulverized, sharply dried, and mixed, and the starch used like any other. Articles stiffened with it, if set on fire, will not burst into flame, but only smolder.

VIII

For Tents.

 

Water........

100

 

Ammonium

   

sulphate,

   

chemically

 

Parts

 

14

by

Boracic acid ..

1

weight.

Hartshorn salt

1

 
 

3

 

Glue water....

2

 

Boil the water, put ammonium sulphate into a vat, pour a part of the boiling water on and then add the remaining materials in rotation. Next follow the rest of the hot water. The vat should be kept covered until the solution is complete.

IX

For Stage Decorations.—Much recommended and used as a fireproofing composition is a cheap mixture of

borax, bitter salt, and water; likewise for canvas a mixture of ammonium sulphate, gypsum, and water. Ammonium sulphate and sodium tungstate are also named for impregnating the canvas before painting.

X

For Mosquito Netting.—Immerse in a 20 per cent solution of ammonium sulphate. One pound of netting will require from 20 to 24 ounces of the solution to thoroughly saturate. After withdrawing from the bath, do not wring it out, but spread it over a pole or some such object, and let it get about half dry, then iron it out with a hot iron. The material (ammonium sulphate) is inoffensive.