This section is from the "Henley's Twentieth Century Formulas Recipes Processes" encyclopedia, by Norman W. Henley and others.
Venice turpentine 200 parts
Turpentine...... 140 parts
Tar............. 80 parts
Lard............ 500 parts
Rape oil......... 240 parts
Rosin........... 50 parts
Lard........... 40 parts
Stearine oil..... 40 parts
For protection against all non-masticating and many mandibulate insects, kerosene oil is much used. It is exhibited in the form of emulsion, which may be made as follows:
Kerosene......... 2 gallons
Common soap..... 8 ounces
Water............ 1 gallon
Dissolve the soap in the water by the aid of heat, bring to the boiling point, and add the kerosene in portions, agitating well after each addition. This is conveniently done by means of the pump to be used for spraying the mixture.
For destroying scale insects dilute the cochineal emulsion (see above) with 9 times its volume of water; in the case of most others, except lice, dilute with 14 volumes, and for the latter with 20 to 25 volumes.
For the extermination of scale insects, resinous preparations are also employed, which kill by covering them with an impervious coating. Such a wash may be made as follows:
Rosin.............. 3.5 pounds
Caustic soda........ 1 pound
Fish oil............. 8 ounces
Water.............. 20 gallons
Boil the rosin, soda, and oil with a small portion of the water, adding the remainder as solution is effected.
For the San Josť scale a stronger preparation is required, the proportion of water being decreased by half, but such a solution is applied only when the tree is dormant.
Scale insect enemies of orange trees are directly controlled in two ways: (1) By spraying [he infested trees with some liquid insecticide, and (2) by subjecting them to the fumes of hydrocyanic acid gas, commonly designated as "gassing." The latter method is claimed to be the most effective means known of destroying scale insects. In practice the method consists in closing a tree at night with a tent and filling the latter with the poisonous fumes generated by treating refined potassium cyanide (98 per cent) with commercial sulphuric acid (66 per cent) and water. The treatment should continue from 30 to 40 minutes, the longer time being preferable. The work is done at night to avoid the scalding which follows day applications, at least in bright sunshine.
The oily washes are said to be the best for the use by the spraying method. "Kerosene emulsion" is a type of these washes. A formula published by the United States Department of Agriculture follows: Kerosene, 2 gallons; whale-oil soap, 1/2 pound; water, 1 gallon. The soap is dissolved in hot water, the kerosene added, and the whole thoroughly emulsified by means of a power pump until a rather heavy, creamy emulsion is produced. The quantity of soap may be increased if desired. The insecticide is applied by spraying the infected tree with an ordinary force pump with spraying nozzle.