Two formulas for insecticides with especial reference to vermin which attack plants:

I

Kerosene........... 2 gallons

Common soap...... 1/2 pound

Water.............. 1 gallon

Heat the solution of soap, add it boiling hot to the kerosene and churn until it forms a perfect emulsion. For use upon scale insects it is diluted with 9 parts of water; upon other ordinary insects with 15 parts of water, and upon soft insects, like plant lice, with from 20 to 25 parts of water.

For lice, etc., which attack the roots of vines and trees the following is recommended:

II

Caustic soda....... 5 pounds

Rosin.............. 40 pounds

Water, a sufficient quantity.

Dissolve the soda in 4 gallons of water, by the aid of heat, add the rosin and after it is dissolved and while boiling add, slowly, enough water to make 50 gallons. For use, 1 part of this mixture is diluted with 10 parts of water and about 5 gallons of the product poured into a depression near the root of the vine or tree.

For Cochineal Insects

An emulsion for fumagine (malady of orange trees caused by the cochineal insect) and other diseases caused by insects is as follows:

Dissolve, hot, 4 parts of black soap in 15 parts of hot water. Let cool to 104° F., and pour in 10 parts of ordinary petroleum, shaking vigorously. Thus an emulsion of café au lait color is obtained, which may be preserved indefinitely. For employment, each part of the emulsion is diluted, according to circumstances, with from 10 to 20 parts of water.

For Locusts

Much trouble is experienced in the Transvaal and Natal with locust pests, the remedies used being either a soap spray, containing 1 pound ordinary household soap in 5 gallons of water, or arsenite of soda, the latter being issued by the government for the purpose, and also used for the destruction of prickly pear, and as a basis of tick dips. A solution of 1 pound in 10 gallons of water is employed for full-grown insects, and of 1 pound in 20 gallons of water for newly hatched ones, 1 pound of sugar being added to each pound of arsenite dissolved. The solution sometimes causes sores on the skin, and the natives employed in its use are given grease to rub over themselves as a measure of protection. An advantage of the arsenite solution over soap is that much less liquid need be used.

A composition for the destruction of pear blight, which has been patented in the United States, is as follows: Peppermint oil, 16 parts; ammonia water, 60 parts; calomel, 30 parts; and linseed oil, 1,000 parts.