This leather owes its name to the country of its origin. The skins used for its production are goat, large sheep, calfskin, and cow or steer hide. The preliminary operations of soaking, unhairing, and fleshing are done in the usual manner, and then the hides are permitted to swell in a mixture of rye flour, oat flour, yeast, and salt. This compound is made into a paste with water, and is then thinned with sufficient water to steep a hundred hides in the mixture. The proportions of ingredients used for this mixture are 22 pounds rye flour, 10 pounds oat flour, a little salt, and sufficient yeast to set up fermentation.

The hides are steeped in this compound for 2 days, until swelled up, and then put into a solution of willow and poplar barks, in which they are allowed to remain 8 days, being frequently turned about. The tanning process is then completed by putting them into a tanning liquor composed of pine and willow barks, equal parts. They are steeped 8 days in this liquor, and then a fresh liquor of the same ingredients and I

proportions is made up. The hides are hardened and split, and then steeped in the freshly made liquor for another 8 days, when they are sufficiently tanned. The hides are then cut down the middle (from head to tail) into sides, and scoured, rinsed, and dried by dripping, and then passed on to the currier, who slightly dampens the dry sides and puts them in a heap or folds them together for a couple of days to temper, and then impregnates them with a compound consisting of 2/3 parts birch oil and 1/3 parts seal oil. This is applied on the flesh side for light leather, and on the grain side also for heavy leather. The leather is then "set out," "whitened," and well boarded and dried before dyeing.

A decoction of sandalwood, alone or mixed with cochineal, is used for producing the Russian red color, and this dye liquor is applied several times, allowing each application to dry before applying the following one. A brush is used, and the dye liquor is spread on the grain side. A solution of tin chloride is used in Russia as a mordant for the leather before laying on the dye. The. dye liquor is prepared by boiling 18 ounces of sandalwood in 13 pints of water for 1 hour, and then filtering the liquid and dissolving in the filtering fluid 1 ounce of prepared tartar and soda, which is then given an hour's boiling and set aside for a few days before use.

After dyeing, the leather is again impregnated with the mixture of birch and seal oils (applied to the grain side on a piece of flannel) and when the dyed leather has dried, a thin smear of gum-dragon mucilage is given to the dyed side to protect the color from fading, while the flesh side is smeared with bark-tan juice and the dyed leather then grained for market.

Toughening Leather

Leather is toughened and also rendered impervious by impregnating with a solution of 1 part of caoutchouc or gutta-percha in 16 parts of benzene or other solvent, to which is added 10 parts of linseed oil. Wax and rosin may be added to thicken the solution.