I

In order to preserve the juices of fruit merely by sterilization, put the juice into the bottles in which it is to be kept, filling them very nearly full; place the bottles, unstop pered, in a kettle filled with cold water, so arranging them on a wooden perforated "false bottom," or other like contrivance, as to prevent their immediate contact with the metal, thus preventing unequal heating and possible fracture. Now heat the water, gradually raising the temperature to the boiling point, and maintain at that until the juice attains a boiling temperature; then close the bottles with perfectly fitting corks, which have been kept immersed in boiling water for a short time before use. The corks should not be fastened in any way, for if the sterilization is not complete, fermentation and consequent explosion of the bottle might occur, unless the cork should be forced out. The addition of sugar is not necessary to secure the success of the operation; in fact a small proportion would have no antiseptic effect. If the juice is to be used for syrup as for use at the soda fountain, the best method is to make a concentrated syrup at once, using about 2 pounds of refined sugar to 1 pint of juice, dissolving by a gentle heat. The syrup may be made by simple agitation without heat and a finer flavor thus results, but its keeping quality would be uncertain.

II

Fruit juices may be preserved by gentle heating and after protection from the air in sterilized containers. The heat required is much below the boiling point. Professor Müller finds that a temperature of from 140° to 158° F., maintained for 15 minutes, is sufficient to render the fermenting agents present inactive. The bottles must also be heated to destroy any adherent germs. The juices may be placed in them as expressed and the container then placed in a water bath. As soon as the heating is finished the bottles must be securely closed. The heating process will, in consequence of coagulating certain substances, produce turbidity, and if clear liquid is required, filtration is, of course, necessary. In this case it is better to heat the juice in bulk in a kettle, filter through felt, fill the bottles, and then heat again in the containers as in the first instance. It is said that grape juice prepared in this manner has been found unaltered after keeping for many years. Various antiseptics nave been proposed as preservatives for fruit juices and other articles of food, but all such agents are objectionable both on account of their direct action on the system and their effect in rendering food less digestible. While small quantities of such drugs occasionally taken may exert no appreciable effect, continuous use is liable to be more or less harmful.