Then take enough fresh grape juice to fill the barrel one-third full, bung up tight, roll and agitate violently on the skid for a few minutes. Next burn more sulphur matches in it until no more will burn, fill in more juice until the barrel is about two-thirds full; agitate and roll again. Repeat the burning process as before, after which fill the barrel completely with grape juice and roll. The barrel should then be bunged tightly and stored in a cool place with the bung up, and so secured that the package cannot be shaken. In the course of a few weeks the juice will have become clear and can then be racked off and filled into bottles or jars direct, sterilized, and corked or sealed up ready for use. By this method, however, unless skillfully handled, the juice is apt to have a slight taste of the sulphur.

The following are the component parts of a California and a Concord unfermented grape juice:

                            Concord        California

                            Per cent        Per cent

Solid contents......... 20.37      20.60

Total acids (as tartaric) .663         .53

Volatile acids...........023         .03

Grape sugar........... 18.54       19.15

Free tartaric acids.......025         .07

Ash...................255         .19

Phosphoric acids........027         .04

Creani of tartar.........55           .59

This table is interesting in so far that the California unfermented grape juice was made from Viniferas or foreign varieties, whereas the Concord was a Labruska or one of the American sorts. The difference in taste and smell is even more pronounced than the analysis would indicate.

Small quantities of grape juice may be preserved in bottles. Fruit is likely to be dusty and to be soiled in other ways, and grapes, like other fruits, should be well washed before using. Leaves or other extraneous matter should also be removed. The juice is obtained by moderate pressure in an ordinary screw press, and strained through felt. By gently heating, the albuminous matter is coagulated and may be skimmed off, and further clarification may be effected by filtering through paper, but such filtration must be done as rapidly as possible, using a number of filters and excluding the air as much as possible.

The juice so obtained may be preserved by sterilization, in the following manner: Put the juice in the bottles in which it is to be kept, filling them very nearly full; place the bottles, unstoppered, in a kettle filled with cold water, so arranging them on a wooden perforated "false bottom" or other like contrivance as to prevent their immediate contact with the metal, this preventing unequal heating and possible fracture. Now heat the water, gradually raising the temperature to the boiling point, and maintain at that until the juice attains a boiling temperature; then close the bottles with perfectly fitting corks, which have been kept immersed in boiling water for a short time before use.

The corks should not be fastened in any way, for, if the sterilization is not complete, fermentation and consequent explosion of the bottle may occur unless the cork should be forced out.

If the juice is to be used for syrup, as for use at the soda fountain, the best method is to make a concentrated syrup at once, using about 2 pounds of refined sugar to 1 pint of juice, dissolving by a gentle heat. This syrup may be made by simple agitation without heat; and a finer flavor thus results, but its keeping quality would be uncertain.

The juices found in the market are frequently preserved by means of antiseptics, but so far none have been proposed for this purpose which can be considered entirely wholesome. Physiological experiments have shown that while bodies suited for this purpose may be apparently without bad effect at first, their repeated ingestion is likely to cause gastric disturbance.