The best filling material to be employed when it is desired to produce a cheaper article is talcum, and in most cases this is preferred to water glass. The superiority of the former over the latter is that water glass hardens the powder, and this is sometimes done to such an extent, when a large quantity of filling material is needed, that it becomes very difficult to rub the soap through the sieves. In case this difficulty arises, only one thing can be done to lighten the task, and that is to powderize the soap when the mixed materials are still warm, and this facilitates the work very much. It is self-evident that friction under these conditions leaves a quantity of the soap powder material on the sieves, and this cannot be lost. Generally it is scraped together and returned to the pan to be included in the next batch, when it is worked up, and so becomes useful, a need which does not arise when talcum has been used as a filling material. Again, the soap powder made with the addition of water glass is not so soluble, and at the same time much denser than when the preparation has been made without this material. It is thus that the purchaser receives by equal weight a smaller-looking quantity, and as the eye has generally a great influence when the consumer determines a purchase, the small-sized parcels will impress him unfavorably. This second quality of soap powder is made of the same ingredients as the other, except that an addition of about 6 parts of talcum is made, and this is stirred up with the other material after all the soda has been dissolved. Some makers cheapen the products also by reducing the quantity of hard soap from 5 to 3 parts and they avoid the filling; the same quantity of soda is used in all cases. On the same principle a better quality is made by altering the proportions of soda and soap the other way. Experiments will soon show which proportions are most suitable for the purpose.

So-called ammonia - turpentine soap powder has been made by crutching oil of turpentine and ammonia with the materials just about the time before the whole is taken out of the heating pan. Some of the powder is also scented, and the perfume is added at the same time and not before. In most of the latter cases mirbane oil is used for the purpose.

These powders are adaptable to hard water, as their excess of alkali neutralizes the lime that they contain:

I

Curd (hard) soap, powdered........   4 parts

Sal soda...........   3 parts

Silicate of soda.....   2 parts

Make as dry as possible, and mix intimately.

Borax Soap Powder

II

Curd (hard) soap, in powder.......... 5 parts

Soda ash.......... 3 parts

Silicate of soda..... 2 parts

Borax (crude)...... 1 part

Each ingredient is thoroughly dried, and all mixed together by sieving.

London Soap Powder

III

Yellow soap........   6 parts

Soda crystals.......   3 parts

Pearl ash..........   l.5 parts

Sulphate of soda... .   1.5 parts

Palm oil...........   1 part