First, clean off all dirt and dust with a good stiff brush, then with a sponge dipped in benzine go over the leather, repeating the process as soon as the benzine evaporates. A few wipings will bring back the original color. Then use a light-yellow dressing and brush well.

The liquid application consists usually of a solution of yellow wax and soap in oil of turpentine, and it should be a matter of no difficulty whatever to compound a mixture of this character at least equal to the preparations on the market. As a type of the mixture occasionally recommended we may quote the following:

I

Yellow wax........ 4 ounces

Pearl ash.......... . 4 drachms

Yellow soap........ 1 drachm

Spirit of turpentine. 7 ounces

Phosphine (aniline). 4 grains

Alcohol........... 4 drachms

Water, a sufficient quantity. Scrape the wax fine and add it, together with the ash and soap, to 12 ounces of water. Boil all together until a smooth, creamy mass is obtained; remove the heat and add the turpentine and the aniline (previously dissolved in the alcohol). Mix thoroughly, and add sufficient water to bring the finished product up to 1.5 pints.

II

Water............. 18 parts

Rosin oil.......... 4.5 parts

Spirit of sal ammoniac, concentrated 1.2 parts

White grain soap. . . 1.93 parts

Russian glue....... 1.59 parts

Brown rock candy . . 0.57 parts Bismarck brown. . . . 0.07 parts Boil all the ingredients together, excepting the pigment; after all has been dissolved, add the Bismarck brown and filter. The dressing is applied with a sponge.

III

Beeswax, yellow. .. . bounces

Linseed oil......... 3 ounces

Oil turpentine...... 10 ounces

Dissolve by heat of a water bath, and add 1.25 ounces soap shavings, hard yellow. Dissolve this in 14 ounces of hot water.

IV

A simpler form of liquid mixture consists of equal parts of yellow wax and palm oil dissolved with the aid of heat in 3 parts of oil of turpentine.

V

Soft or green soap.. . 1 ounce

Linseed oil, raw .... 2 ounces

Annatto solution (in oil)............. 7 ounces

Yellow wax........ 2 ounces

Gum turpentine. ... 7 ounces

Water............. 7 ounces

Dissolve the soap in the water and add the solution of annatto; melt the wax in the oil of turpentine, and gradually stir in the soap solution, stirring until cold.

The paste to accompany the foregoing mixtures is composed of yellow wax and rosin thinned with petrolatum, say 4 parts of wax, 1 part of rosin, and 12 parts of petrolatum.