So far the right leg has not had much attention. We left it at the top of the swing, firmly planted on the right foot, which had not moved in the upward swing, and full of that torsional strain, which, as we have already seen, is so often mistaken for weight; which, in fact, in my opinion, is responsible for all the false teaching about the distribution of weight at the top of the swing.

Now, however, it has to get a little more action. Almost directly the club starts on the return journey to the ball the right heel begins to leave the ground. As it comes up, it performs a most peculiar function in the swing of some of the most famous players. It pushes the hips forward towards the hole. This is easily the most elusive action, and I think the hardest to describe, in golf. In Vardon's case the downward stroke is scarcely more than a fourth of the way through before this peculiar pushing forward of the hips takes place. Naturally this movement brings the left foot down firmly on the turf, but the left leg does not straighten immediately. It remains slightly bent, while at the same time the right heel continues to rise so as to enable the body to follow through, which it does easily and naturally, nearly all the weight going on to the left foot at the finish. That is the way Vardon plays the stroke, but it is not the way in which many of the best players in the United States of America do it. They have a habit of cutting off the transference of weight, and very few of them have the hip action I speak of.

Now, this hip action has never been properly explained. Vardon, so far as I am aware, has never said what he thinks of it in his own case, or why he does it. I do not wish to dogmatize about this hip action, but I believe that it comes in earlier in the swing than I have indicated. I am inclined to think that this forward push of the hips sets up the reciprocating movement of the shoulders and so throws them back into position so that Vardon can come in under his head as he does; in other words, so that he can get his back into it in his own inimitable manner, which is so closely, yet not exactly, followed by his faithful disciple and admirer, George Duncan.

I do not care to speak positively about this characteristic of Vardon's drive. The action is found in nearly every upright drive of good rhythm, so it would be useless to overlook it in an analysis of the golf stroke. Something, I think, it must add to the speed and also the accuracy of the stroke. It keeps the club more in line with the hole. It makes the player hit more under his body; in other words, get his back muscles into the stroke and it seems as though it gives more scope for the right hand "punch." In Vardon's case I think that it gives his right arm, which he carries fairly wide of his body, every opportunity to get all the speed possible out of it by coming through with the blow delivered for a long distance in the line to the hole.

The main speed of the golf stroke comes out of the elbow joint and the turn of the forearm. The greatest factor probably, almost certainly, is the unflexing of the right elbow-joint. It seems to me that if the golf swing can be so played as to have this take place mainly in the line to the hole it is an advantage.

It must not be thought that this hip action is necessary. It would be useless for many to attempt it. The downward stroke may quite well be played by forgetting about the hips, except in so far as they come in naturally, and letting the right heel come up easily and gradually in the downward swing while the left is sinking back to its original position and straightening the left leg again.