Europeans express surprise that we build so much with wood. And yet, in a new country, where wood is plenty, that this should be so is no cause for wonder. Still the practice should not be encouraged. Buildings erected with brick or stone are far preferable to those of wood: they are more durable; not so liable to injury by fire, nor to need repairs; and will be found in the end quite as economical. A wooden house is suitable for a temporary residence only; and those who would bequeath a dwelling to their children will endeavor to build with a more durable material. Wooden cornices and gutters, attached to brick houses, are objectionable - not only on account of their frail nature, but also because they render the building liable to destruction by fire.
49. - Dwelling-Houses: are built of various dimensions and styles, according to their destination; and to give designs and directions for their erection, it is necessary to know their situation and object. A dwelling intended for a gardener would require very different dimensions and arrangements from one intended for a retired gentleman - with his servants, horses, etc.; nor would a house designed for the city be appropriate for the country. For city houses, arrangements that would be convenient for one family might be very inconvenient for two or more. Figs. 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 represent the inchnographical projection, or ground-plan, of the floors of an ordinary city house, designed to be occupied by one family only. Fig. 21 is an elevation, or front view, of the same house. All these plans are drawn at the same scale - which is that at the bottom of Fig. 21.
Fig. 14 is a Plan of the Under-Cellar.
a, is the coal-vault, 6 by 10 feet.
by is the furnace for heating the house.
c, d, are front and rear areas.
Fig. 15 is a Plan of the Basement.
a, is the library, or ordinary dining-room, 15 by 20 feet. b, is the kitchen, 15 by 22 feet.
c, is the store-room, 6 by 9 feet.
d, is the pantry, 4 by 7 feet.
c, is the china closet, 4 by 7 feet.
f, is the servants' water-closet. g, is a closet.
h, is a closet with a dumb-waiter to the first story above. i, is an ash closet under the front stoop. j, is the kitchen-range.
k, is the sink for washing and drawing water. l, are wash-trays.
Fig. 16 is a Plan of the First Story.
a, is the parlor, 15 by 34 feet.
b, is the dining-room, 16 by 23 feet.
c, is the vestibule.
c, is the closet containing the dumb-waiter from the basement. l, is the closet containing butler's sink.
g, gy are closets.
h, is a closet for hats and cloaks. i,j, are front and rear balconies.
Fig. 17 is the Second Story.
a, a, are chambers, 15 by 13 feet.
b, is a bed-room, 7 1/2 by 13 feet.
C, is the bath-room, 7 1/2 by 13 feet.
d, d, are dressing-rooms, 6 by 7 1/2 feet.
e, e, are closets.
f, f, are wardrobes.
g, g, are cupboards.
Plans Of A City House
Fig. 14. Under-Cellar.
Fig. 15. Basement.
Fig. 16. First Story.
Fig. 17. Second Story.
Fig. 18 is the Third Story. a, a, are chambers, 15 by 19 feet.
b, b, are bed-rooms, 7 1/2 by 13 feet.
c, c, are closets.
d, is a linen-closet, 5 by 7 feet.
Fig. 18. Third Story.
Fig. 19. fourth story.
e, e, are dressing-closets. f, f, are wardrobes. g, g, are cupboards.
Fig. 19 is the Fourth Story. a, a, are chambers, 14 by 17 feet.
b, b, are bed-rooms, 8 1/2 by 17 feet.
c, c, c, are closets.
Fig. 20 is the Section of the House showing the heights of the several stories.
Fig. 21 is the Front Elevation.
The size of the house is 25 feet front by 55 feet deep; this is about the average depth, although some are extended to 60 and 65 feet in depth.
These are introduced to give some general ideas of the principles to be followed in designing city houses. In placing the chimneys in the parlors, set the chimney-breasts equidistant from the ends of the room. The basement chimney-breasts may be placed nearly in the middle of the side of the room, as there is but one flue to pass through the chimney-breast above; but in the second story, as there are two flues, one from the basement and one from the parlor, the breast will have to be placed nearly perpendicular over the parlor breast, so as to receive the flues within the jambs of the fire-place. As it is desirable to have the chimney-breast as near the middle of the room as possible, it may be placed a few inches towards that point from over the breast below. So in arranging those of the stories above, always make provision for the flues from below.