From information obtained by a study of the intimate family life in various industrial towns, after consideration of the many practical elements entering into the question, and taking into consideration the expressed opinion of many qualified authorities, the author's recommendations as to the minimum requirements of "An Industrial Worker's Home" are as follows:
Permanent weatherproof construction of exterior walls and roof.
Cellar to be provided, except in localities where impractical or unnecessary.
3. In case cellar is omitted, first floor to be at least two ft. above ground and supported on masonry piers or foundations carried below frost line; and the clear space enclosed but adequately ventilated.
4. Where cellar is provided, it shall have cement floor and floor drain.
5. Cellar to be properly lighted and ventilated.
6. No living quarters to be in basement.
7. A separate chimney flue to be run to the cellar for future installation of a furnace.
8. Adequate provision must be made for heating the house, but furnace should not be minimum requirement. All heating fixtures, whether using gas or other fuel, must be provided with vents to flues.
9. Gas piping to be provided for kitchen range and hot water boiler.
One room for parents and infant child and enough rooms for other children for proper segregation of the sexes.
11. Room sizes to accommodate minimum furniture as listed. The furniture to be drawn in to scale on plans, so as not to conflict with windows, doors or hot-air registers.
12. Row or group houses to be not more than two rooms deep; except in rows where combinations of units (as one four-room, two six-room, and one four-room) allow for proper ventilation to the rooms of the deeper unit by the nature of their arrangement.
In all such units, provision shall be made for obtaining as great a degree of privacy as is enjoyed at least in the row-type house. Separate front and rear entrances, separate cellars when cellars exist, with independent plumbing lines, and heating and lighting facilities. It is also recommended that means of circulation between each apartment and private cellar be effected without going outside the house.
1 Adapted from Industrial Housing (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1920), pp. 302-8. As these minimum requirements were drawn up by Mr. Knowles in 1920, a few changes doubtless now would be made to make them applicable to the advanced minimum, present-day housing standards.
There must be means of entrance other than by the front door.
17. Front porches, while desirable, are not a minimum requirement.
18. In no case should the stairs have a rise of over eight inches and tread of less than nine inches.